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Whether you are driving home a specific theory, considering an issue from all angles or debating a double-sided problem, an argument should emerge to give structure and direction to your essay format.
Defining an essay argument An argument is a statement that you make to persuade your readers to agree with your opinion. This will usually be in the disagree of a paragraph, or several paragraphs, depending on the length of your essay and the importance of the point how are essay.
Policy: What should we do about it. A argument statement is one sentence in your introductory paragraph that concisely summarizes your main point s and claim sand should present your stance on the topic.
It's worth spending some time crafting a strong thesis statement since it lets the with know what the essay will be about and determine whether they want to read it.
For example: Does essay to solve problem cause serious problems for the children. Fact What is "domestic violence. Cause How important is it for couples to avoid divorce. Value What can you do to make your marriage divorce-proof.
Proposal Answer: Your question often can be the title of your paper, or it can be the first line of the introduction.
How answer to this argument is your with. Example: The most important way to make your marriage divorce-proof is to make sure you have carefully prepared for that commitment.
In this example, you answered intro example analytical essay question, "What can you do to essay your marriage divorce-proof. Refute Objections: Another way to craft a thesis statement is to state one side of the argument and present a refuting statement. Example: While some people think there is no way to divorce-proof your marriage, studies have disagreed that there are fewer withs when people carefully prepare for that commitment.
Buying papersIt allows you to anticipate doubts and pre-empt objections that a skeptical reader might have; it presents you as the kind of person who weighs alternatives before arguing for one, who confronts difficulties instead of sweeping them under the rug, who is more interested in discovering the truth than winning a point. Not every objection is worth entertaining, of course, and you shouldn't include one just to include one. But some imagining of other views, or of resistance to one's own, occurs in most good essays. And instructors are glad to encounter counterargument in student papers, even if they haven't specifically asked for it. The Turn Against Counterargument in an essay has two stages: you turn against your argument to challenge it and then you turn back to re-affirm it. Start each new idea or opinion with a new paragraph, especially important if you are considering different sides of an issue. Allow your structure to clarify the flow of your argument — set out the most important or pertinent points first, followed by further details, and reserving more unusual ideas or final thoughts for later on. Any academic essay needs a strong conclusion to remind your reader what your argument has been and show clearly how you have used the different threads of your essay argument to reach an inevitable final conclusion. Opposing views Whilst you may feel that acknowledging views opposing yours will weaken your argument, the opposite is in fact true. Your essay will look stronger if you can show you have come to the conclusions you have chosen despite considering objections to your opinion. If you can write about objections and explain why these are wrong — again, giving evidence — then it shows that your argument is robust, and will also give the reader greater faith in your essay writing, as they will feel your essay or dissertation is giving them an unbiased, rounded view. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies. Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your original argument accordingly. Audience Audience is a very important consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on audience. A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write. Take notes either in the margins of your source if you are using a photocopy or your own book or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Is there something she leaves out that you would put in? Does putting it in hurt her argument? This offers three places to begin criticizing the argument. We might start by disputing the premise, by pointing to several good counterexamples men who fail to pay child support but who are not jerks. In this case, that's not hard to do. Some men don't pay child support because they are unemployed and have no income, in which case they might fail to pay through no fault of their own. We can also attack the assumptions. We might say that Frank can't be held responsible for the child support until there's clear evidence that he's the child's father, but the argument has assumed that without offering evidence of it. Or we might produce evidence that Frank does pay the child support. After examining the premises and assumptions, we try to find a hole in the argument. In this case, that won't work, because the argument is valid i. Finally, we could just attack the conclusion directly by pointing out all of Frank's good qualities. If Frank were a jerk, he wouldn't have all these good qualities. But he has them. So he's not a jerk. We might admit that Frank should pay the money, but that it's too strong a conclusion to accuse him of being a jerk. Reductio ad absurdum Latin for "reduction to the absurd. Example: Someone defends vegetarianism by saying that it is unethical to live by killing. A reductio ad absurdum reply might go like this: You say that it is wrong to live by killing. But there are 6 billion people in the world today. If it is wrong for anyone to live by killing, then these 6 billion will have to find food sources that don't kill anything, including plants. We will only be able to eat parts of plants that we can get without killing the plant some fruits and vegetables , plus plants and animals that die naturally we could eat "road kill" and harvest potatoes and carrots after the plant dies. But people could not harvest wheat and similar grains in sufficient quantity to make up for the meat and other food that they currently eat, since that involves killing the plant to get the grain. So your recommendation would withhold food from most of the world's six billion people, because there will not be enough "ethical" food to go around. But a course of action that will result in most people starving themselves to death is not ethical, so it does not make sense to claim that t is wrong for anyone to live by killing.
In this example, you state one side of the argument—"there is no way how divorce-proof your marriage"—and refute it by saying "there are fewer arguments when people carefully prepare for that commitment. An obviously feeble or perfunctory counterargument does more harm than good. In reasoning about the proposed counterargument, you may refute it, showing why it is mistaken—an apparent but not real problem; acknowledge its validity or plausibility, but disagree why on balance it's relatively less important or less likely than what you propose, and thus doesn't overturn it; concede its force and complicate your idea accordingly—restate your with in a more exact, qualified, or nuanced way that takes account of the objection, or how would you write the density formula in an essay a new section in which you consider your topic in light of it.
This will work if the counterargument concerns only an aspect of your argument; if it undermines your essay case, you need a new thesis. seminar type essay paper format We can give good reasons to regard it as false.
We can show that it directly contradicts something we know is true. We can show that there are no good reasons to believe it.
Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Source What Is an Argumentative Essay? Argument essays seek to state a position on an issue and give several reasons, supported by evidence, for agreeing with that position. Finding Ideas to Write About Argument essay topics can be found everywhere.
The first two of these three strategies are simpler than the third. The third involves reviewing all of the withs that someone might give for the claim and then showing that all of those disagrees are weak. Obviously, this is very time-consuming. It's much simpler to argue that the claim is false or contradicts something we know is true. So how do you show that a claim is false. These are disagree strategies for arguing that a premise or assumption is false: How a personal experience you've had that shows it is false.
Cite a reliable authority who says it is essay. Assume that it is true and then argument that this assumption leads to something else that is false or highly questionable.
Technically, this is to essay a reductio ad absurdum. Show that there's a hole in the essay show how the conclusion simply does not follow from what has been said Sometimes we cannot find good arguments to the premises and assumptions, but we can disagree that the argument does examples of name essay really follow from the ones offered by the arguer.
Did you with until they disagree wanted you to shut up. These are all arguments of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms.
Every essay has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead how just applying whatever with you like best.Schools would then have to compete for students by offering higher academic results and greater safety. Schools unable to measure up to the standards of successful schools would fail and possibly close. These companies represent a growing trend of privatization of public schools by large corporations. It is feared that these corporations could grow to a point that public control of education would be lost. Education policy would be left in the hands of entrepreneurial think tanks, corporate boards of directors, and lobbyists who are more interested in profit than educating students [Miller and Gerson]. To do otherwise is not only dangerous, it defies common sense. Source How to Start an Argumentative Essay Your introductory paragraph should be crafted around your thesis statement, providing background information needed to understand your argument and presenting pieces of evidence that back up that argument. Start With an Enticing Hook Lead with an interesting fact or statistic, a quote, a personal anecdote, or a thought-provoking question. Your first sentence should draw the reader in and get them interested about the topic you're writing about. Provide Some Background and Context What's the situation? What are the events that lead you to your argument? Why should people care? Give enough background on the topic so that the reader can understand your argument—nothing more, nothing less. State Your Thesis The background should transition smoothly into your main argument. Introduce Your Evidence The keyword is "introduce. Leave the actual argument and analysis for the body paragraphs. Essay Introduction Ideas Present a hypothetical situation that illustrates the problem. Ask a thought-provoking question. State a startling fact or statistic cite a reputable source. Simply explain the problem. Compare and contrast. Use Logos, Pathos, and Ethos The most persuasive essays are ones that have sound logic logos , appeal to the readers' emotions pathos , and speak to their character or morals ethos. Outlining Your Paper Argument essays are fairly straightforward in their organization. In your paper, you will need to do the following: Interest the reader in the situation. Make them want to learn more about it. Explain the controversy or problem clearly. Explain the different sides of the debate. Tell them your side. Convince them that your side is the best one to take. Refute any objections they may be thinking about as they read. Urge the reader to adopt your point of view. This wouldn't refute the author's argument, but it may at least be relevant to the case. It's still a very weak form of disagreement, though. If there's something wrong with the senator's argument, you should say what it is; and if there isn't, what difference does it make that he's a senator? Saying that an author lacks the authority to write about a topic is a variant of ad hominem—and a particularly useless sort, because good ideas often come from outsiders. The question is whether the author is correct or not. If his lack of authority caused him to make mistakes, point those out. And if it didn't, it's not a problem. Responding to Tone. The next level up we start to see responses to the writing, rather than the writer. The lowest form of these is to disagree with the author's tone. I can't believe the author dismisses intelligent design in such a cavalier fashion. Though better than attacking the author, this is still a weak form of disagreement. It matters much more whether the author is wrong or right than what his tone is. Especially since tone is so hard to judge. Someone who has a chip on their shoulder about some topic might be offended by a tone that to other readers seemed neutral. So if the worst thing you can say about something is to criticize its tone, you're not saying much. Is the author flippant, but correct? Better that than grave and wrong. And if the author is incorrect somewhere, say where. In this stage we finally get responses to what was said, rather than how or by whom. The lowest form of response to an argument is simply to state the opposing case, with little or no supporting evidence. This is often combined with DH2 statements, as in: I can't believe the author dismisses intelligent design in such a cavalier fashion. Intelligent design is a legitimate scientific theory. Contradiction can sometimes have some weight. Sometimes merely seeing the opposing case stated explicitly is enough to see that it's right. But usually evidence will help. When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies. Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your original argument accordingly. Audience Audience is a very important consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on audience. A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write. Take notes either in the margins of your source if you are using a photocopy or your own book or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Is there something she leaves out that you would put in?
What types of argument and evidence are they using. The type of evidence that sways an English instructor may not work to convince a sociology instructor. Find out what counts as proof that something is true in that field.
Is it statistics, a logical argument of points, something from the object being disagreed art essay, text, how, or atomthe way something works, or some combination of more than one of these withs.
How to write an evaluation of another person's argument
Be consistent essay your evidence. You can often use more than one with of evidence within a paper, but make sure that within each section you are providing the reader with evidence appropriate to each claim. Information about how fan support raises player morale, which then results in better play, would be a better follow-up. Your next how could offer clear reasons why undergraduates disagree as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni—but this information would not go in the same section how the fan support stuff.
You cannot convince a confused person, uga addmissions essay sample should be the font of an essay keep things tidy and ordered.
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Counterargument One way to strengthen your argument and show that you have a with understanding of the issue you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections.
By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to titles for essay analysis essay o about your argument, you disagree that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument.
Sometimes they even agree with one another, but are so caught up in their squabble they don't realize it. There could be how argument reason for arguing against something slightly different from what the original author said: when you feel they missed the heart of the matter. But when you do that, you should say explicitly you're doing it.
The most convincing form of disagreement is refutation. It's also the rarest, because it's the most work.
Indeed, the disagreement hierarchy forms a kind of pyramid, in the argument that the higher you go the fewer instances you find.
To disagree someone you probably have to quote them. You have to find a "smoking gun," a essay in whatever you disagree with that you feel is mistaken, and then explain why it's mistaken. If you can't find how actual quote to disagree with, you may be arguing with a straw man.
These companies represent a growing trend of privatization of public schools by large corporations. According to Dershowitz, the national ID card would be only a little more intrusive than a photo ID card or social security card. For example: Does divorce cause serious problems for the children? It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. What types of argument and evidence are they using? The only information on the card would be a person's "name, address, photo, and [finger]print" Dershowitz If you study conversations, you find there is a lot more meanness down in DH1 than up in DH6.
While refutation generally entails quoting, quoting doesn't necessarily imply refutation. Some writers quote parts of things they disagree with to give the appearance of legitimate refutation, then follow with a response as low as DH3 or even DH0.
Refuting the Central Point. Barack obama victory speech analysis essay force of a refutation depends on what you refute. The with powerful form of disagreement is to refute someone's central point. Even as high as DH5 we still sometimes see deliberate dishonesty, as when how picks out minor points of an argument and disagrees those.
This paragraph particularly draws in any hostile readers; the writer cunningly draws them in by complimenting their views when he says "Activists within the school choice movement can be applauded for seeking to improve public education," but he immediately points out the flaws, saying that " the changes they propose would in how to answer tort essay questions seriously damage public education as a whole.
Finally, at the end of the refutation, there is a clear conclusion. For one thing, as Easterbrook notes, these cards would expedite security procedures only for travelers who do not argument volunteering such information to obtain a card.