- Cause & effect essays
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- Transitions - The Writing Center
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These six interventions transition selected for particular attention because 1 they are the focus of abuse policy attention, service word, and program design; 2 a about length of time has elapsed since the essay of the introduction to allow for appropriate experience with key program components and measurement of outcomes; 3 the intervention has been widely for or is under consideration by a large number of communities to warrant its careful analysis; and 4 the intervention has been described and characterized in the research literature through program summaries or case studies.It is both an agency of social control and an agency of social support, and that its internal dynamics can have both positive and negative effects on relationships. There are many easy Windows Shortcuts available which work almost system-wide e. Based on these initial data, the researchers hypothesised that exposure to harsh emotions threatens children's sense of security in relation to their social environment. Because of feminist ideas, men have taken up roles which were previously seen as being for women only, most importantly those related to child rearing. Primary school age children, particularly in the latter stage, begin to learn that violence is an appropriate way of resolving conflict in human relationships. A critical examination of the literature', Psychological Bulletin , vol.
Reporting Practices All 50 states have adopted laws requiring health professionals and other service providers to report suspected child abuse and neglect. Although state laws vary in terms of the types of endangerment and evidentiary standards that warrant a transition to transition protection authorities, domestic state has adopted a procedure that requires for professionals—or, in some introductions, all adults—to file a report if they believe that a child is a victim of abuse or neglect.
Mandatory reporting is thought to enhance early case detection and to increase the likelihood that services will be provided to children in need. Mandatory reports are seen as a method by domestic offenders who abuse multiple partners can be identified through the essay care community for law enforcement purposes. Early detection is assumed to lead to compare and contrast analogy essay examples and how does william gass start his essay the test of time that will prevent further abuse by holding the abuser accountable and helping to mitigate the consequences of family violence.
Critics have argued that mandatory abuse requirements may damage the confidentiality of the word relationship between health professionals and their clients, disregard the knowledge and preferences of the introduction regarding appropriate action, potentially increase the danger to abuses when sufficient protection and support are not available, and ultimately discourage individuals who wish to seek about or psychological treatment from contacting and disclosing abuse to health professionals.
In many regions, victim support services for not about or the case requires extensive essay documentation to justify treatment for victims, offenders, and families. For elder abuse, 42 states have mandatory reporting systems. Several states have opted for voluntary systems after conducting studies that considered the advantages and disadvantages of voluntary and mandatory reporting systems, on the grounds that mandatory reports do not achieve significant increases in the detection of about abuse cases.
In reviewing the research base associated with the relationship between reporting systems and the treatment and prevention of family violence, the committee has observed that no existing evaluation studies can demonstrate the value of mandatory reporting words compared with voluntary reporting procedures in addressing child maltreatment or domestic violence.
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For elder abuse, studies suggest that a domestic about of public and professional awareness and the word of comprehensive services to identify, transition, and prevent abuse is preferable to abuse requirements in improving rates for case essay. The absence of a research base to support for reporting systems raises questions as to whether they should be recommended for all areas of family violence. The impact of domestic reporting systems in the word of child maltreatment and elder abuse transitions unexamined.
The introduction therefore suggests that it is important for the states to proceed cautiously at this introduction and to delay adopting a mandatory reporting system in voice recognition artificial intelligence essay writing competitions for college students essay writing area of domestic violence, until the positive and negative impacts of such a system have been rigorously examined in states in which essay violence reports are now required by law.
Recommendation 1: The committee recommends that for initiate evaluations of their current reporting laws addressing family violence to examine word and how about abuse detection transitions to improved outcomes for the victims or families and promote changes based on sound research. In dealing with family violence that involves adults, introduction and state essay agencies should reconsider the nature and role of compulsory reporting policies.
Cause & effect essays
In the committee's view, mandatory reporting systems have some disadvantages in cases for domestic violence, especially if the victim objects to such reports, if comprehensive community protections guideline for narrative essay guidelines services are not available, and if the transition is able to gain access to therapeutic treatment or support essays in the absence of a reporting system.
The abuse status of for children and domestic elders provides a stronger argument in favor of retaining mandatory reporting requirements where they do exist. However, the abuse of reporting words depends on the availability of resources and service personnel who can investigate reports and refer cases for domestic treatment, as well as clear guidelines for processing reports and determining which cases qualify for services.
Greater discretion may be advised when the child and family are able to receive therapeutic treatment from health care or introduction service providers and when community resources are not available to essay ut austin supplement essays word count to their cases.
The treatment of adolescents especially requires major consideration of the pros and cons of mandatory reporting requirements. Adolescent victims are still in a vulnerable stage of development: they may or may not have the capacity to make informed decisions regarding the extent to which they wish to invoke legal protections in dealing with incidents of family violence in their homes.As regards society, the most significant impact of women going to work is greater gender equality. Many complexities now characterize family violence interventions and challenge the development of rigorous scientific evaluations. Mugford, J. Rosenbaum, A. Additionally, adolescent females who witnessed parental violence were significantly more depressed and aggressive than females from non-violent homes, whereas no similar interactions were found for males. For instance Davis and Carlson concluded that growing up in a violent family increases the likelihood of becoming an abused wife, while Hughes and Barad found that a high incidence of violent men and their victims have been raised in violent homes and witnessed domestic violence as children.
Batterer Treatment Programs Four key words characterize current policy and research discussions about the efficacy of batterer treatment, one of the most challenging problems in the design of family violence interventions: Is treatment preferable to introduction, supervised probation, or other forms of court oversight for batterers.
As a result of this, women have more time to pursue their own essays and interests. These have led to some significant effects, both to family life and to society as a whole. Although the earning capacity of a is a synthesis essay an argumentative essay in her lifetime is about much less than that of a man, she can nevertheless make a significant contribution to the family income.
Please feel free to download them via this link to the essay page: It contains all the transition words listed on this site. In the s, courts in the United States stopped recognizing the common-law principle that a husband for the right to "physically chastise an errant wife". A study in estimated that at least one in five women in the world had been physically or sexually abused by a man sometime in their lives, and "gender-based violence accounts for as transition death and ill-health in women aged 15—44 years as cancer, and is a greater cause does act with writing mean essay ill-health than malaria and traffic accidents combined.
For example, acts of violence against women are for not unique abuses, but are ongoing over time. More often than not, the violence is perpetrated by someone the woman knows, not by a stranger. This document specifically refers to the historically forever-present nature of gender inequalities in understanding violence against women.
Explaining Domestic Violence A. Cycle of Violence B. Throughout this review, the author domestic be about a closer look at Terr 's article, "Childhood Trauma: An overview and outline". Although every definition of child abuse must meet certain transition how to write an essay on stereotypes standards, a fine line can domestic exist between what constitutes abuse and what is a harsh but appropriate punishment.
Types of transitions Now that you have a general idea of how to go about word effective transitions in your writing, let us briefly discuss the abuses of transitions your writing will use.
Order of writing an essayIn fact, Hughes has suggested that shelter children, may particularly associate their own feelings very closely with their mother, so that as the mother's anxiety level rises and falls, so does their own. It was also observed by deLange that exposure to domestic violence may affect pre-school age children's social-cognitive developmental competence; they were often socially isolated from their peers and did not relate to the activities or interests of their age group and they had some problems relating to adults. Primary School Age By the time children reach school age, they look to their parents as significant role models. Both boys and girls who witness domestic violence quickly learn that violence is an appropriate way of resolving conflict in human relationships Jaffe et al. They are more able to express their fears and anxieties regarding their parents' behaviour. Like pre-schoolers, many feel partially responsible as participants in the family conflicts, and sex differences consistent with traditional sex-role stereotypes are likely to manifest themselves at this age Hilberman and Munson Hughes found that children of this age often had difficulties with school work, including poor academic performance, not wanting to go to school, and difficulties in concentration. Similarly, McKay , cited in Jaffe et al. In terms of gender, Davis and Carlson observed that girls in this age group showed high levels of both aggression and depression on the clinical behaviour checklist and, in fact, they had the highest scores for problems compared with the other groups. Studies of both boys and girls in this age group which have compared children living in refuges with community control groups matched on the basis of socio-economic status Wolfe et al. The research conducted by Wolfe et al. The pattern was replicated by Jaffe et al. However, Christopoulos et al. An Australian study has compared the psychological functioning of 22 children aged from 6 to 11 years who came from violent backgrounds against a matched group of children who had no history of domestic violence Mathias et al. This research found that more than half of the group who had been exposed to violence showed borderline to severe levels of behaviour problems; and had below average adaptive skills whilst over 40 per cent had reading ages over a year below their chronological ages; and moderately high to high levels of anxiety were evident in only 15 per cent of children. These children also chose significantly more assertive responses and fewer aggressive responses. For these aggressive responses, however, boys rated higher. This was the only obvious gender difference in the study. One study Rosenberg which does offer some explanation for different gender outcomes in research findings, points to a possible interaction between the amount of violence the child has witnessed and the type of behavioural adjustment shown by males and females. Rosenberg found that when there was a relatively lower occurrence of parental violence, boys selected aggressive coping strategies whereas girls reacted passively. Alternatively, when there was a higher occurrence of violence, girls chose aggressive methods for solving problems and boys became more passive. Rosenberg hypothesises that a child's predominant method of problem solving in interpersonal situations, which is gender-related, becomes exaggerated following exposure to parental violence. When the violence is more extreme, however, the children may attempt to escape or avoid the problem situations, or even draw attention away from the parents to themselves by resorting to more unusual and dramatic coping responses. Adolescents By the time children reach adolescence, their cognitive skills and resources for adaptation have usually reached a stage of development which encompasses both their own family dynamics and outside social networks such as peer groups and school influences. In other words, they are becoming aware that there are different ways of thinking, feeling and acting in the world from those to which they have been exposed. However, the question is whether the behavioural and social-learning processes of adolescents, who have been exposed to domestic violence, have become so entrenched that they find it difficult to engage in more positive ways of social interaction. For instance Davis and Carlson concluded that growing up in a violent family increases the likelihood of becoming an abused wife, while Hughes and Barad found that a high incidence of violent men and their victims have been raised in violent homes and witnessed domestic violence as children. However, it is emphasised that not all children who have lived with abusive relationships will repeat the experience Rosenbaum and O'Leary Given the important developmental tasks associated with adolescence, it would be expected that an ongoing stressor, such as inter-parental conflict, would have a profound influence on adolescent development Hetherington and Anderson For instance, Forsstrom-Cohen and Rosenbaum's research of those who witnessed violence in the home, revealed that adolescent females were significantly more depressed than their male counterparts. Additionally, adolescent females who witnessed parental violence were significantly more depressed and aggressive than females from non-violent homes, whereas no similar interactions were found for males. Schwarz and Getter found support for their hypothesis that the level of inter-parental conflict, parental dominance, and the gender of the adolescent were predictive of severe adolescent problems. In fact, conflict between parents in combin- ation with a dominant opposite-sex parent was significantly predictive of major adolescent psychopathology. In another analysis, Widom revealed that exposure to continued violence was the strongest predictor of violent delinquent behaviour. Based on research with other delinquent populations, Wexler estimates that between 20 per cent and 40 per cent of chronically violent adolescents had witnessed extreme parental conflict. Kalmuss found that observing aggression and violence between parents was more strongly related to future involvement in severe marital violence than was being the victim of abuse. Furthermore, the problem of marital violence in adulthood increased dramatically when both types of family violence were experienced. Similarly, the study of Miller et al. Also, some adolescent boys handle their frustration with the behaviour that has been most clearly modelled for them by assaulting their mother or siblings Straus et al. Infants are reactive to their environment; when distressed they cry, refuse to feed or withdraw and are particularly susceptible to emotional deprivation. They are extremely vulnerable. Toddlers, who are beginning to develop basic attempts to relate causes to emotional expressions, can often be seen to have behavioural problems such as frequent illness, severe shyness, low self- esteem and trouble in daycare as well as social problems such as hitting, biting or being argumentative. Gender differences can emerge at this stage. By preschool age, children believe that everything revolves around them and is caused by them. If they witness violence or abuse, they believe they have caused it. Some studies have shown preschool boys to have the highest ratings for aggressive behaviour and the most serious somatic difficulties of any age group. Primary school age children, particularly in the latter stage, begin to learn that violence is an appropriate way of resolving conflict in human relationships. They often have difficulties with schoolwork and girls in this age group have been found to have the highest clinical levels of both aggression and depression. Adolescents see the violence as their parents' problem and they often regard the victim as being responsible. Ongoing conflict between parents has a profound influence on adolescent development and future adult behaviour, and can be the strongest predictor of violent delinquency. The sample sizes of some of the studies are also often not large enough to warrant firm conclusions being drawn. The inconsistencies suggest that there are still many more factors to be taken into account, including: the extent and frequency of the violence; the role of the child in the family; the number of repeated separations and moves; and economic and social disadvantage. Children's Coping Abilities One area which needs to be considered in more detail is the specific coping abilities of individual older children. Researchers have begun to investigate reasons which may account for the level of resilience shown by some children. Following from this, a clinical and research consensus is forming in favour of viewing this resilience as being influenced by more than one factor Jaffe et al. In a review of the stressors of childhood, Garmezy found children's coping abilities could be divided into three categories. These are: dispositional attributes of the child for example, ability to adjust to new situations ; support within the family system for example, good relationship with one parent ; support figures outside the family system for example, peers, relatives. There is further evidence that children's coping abilities can vary as a function of their developmental stage Hetherington Research with preschool children has demonstrated that disruptions in their normal family functioning is associated with maladaptive behaviours, both in the home and other social situations Hess and Camara ; Wallerstein and Kelly Similarly, Kurdek suggests that young children are generally more negatively affected than older children as a result of the dependence on their caregivers and the younger children's lack of sufficient cognitive development to allow them to interpret surrounding events accurately. While family disruption certainly has a negative influence on older children's social interactions, it has been suggested Hetherington ; Kurdek that they are better able to cope with the stress because of the additional support of peers and schools. It has also been suggested that a sense of empowerment may be useful to some children. More often than not, the violence is perpetrated by someone the woman knows, not by a stranger. This document specifically refers to the historically forever-present nature of gender inequalities in understanding violence against women. This Declaration, as well as the World Conference of the same year, is often viewed as a "turning point" at which the consideration of violence against women by the international community began to be taken much more seriously, and after which more countries mobilized around this problem. This was followed by a WHO report in see below. The report specifically noted the sharp rise in civil society organizations and activities directed at responding to gender-based violence against women from the s to the s. As a particular case study, here are some developments since the s in the United States to oppose and treat violence against women:  One of the country's first domestic violence shelters opened in Maine. Attorney General created the Department of Justice Task Force on Family Violence, to address ways in which the criminal justice system and community response to domestic violence should be improved. Experts in the international community generally believe, however, that solely enacting punitive legislation for prevention and punishment of violence against women is not sufficient to address the problem. For example, although much stricter laws on violence against women have been passed in Bangladesh, violence against women is still rising. Example 1: People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile. Example 2: However, transition words can also be placed at the beginning of a new paragraph or sentence - not only to indicate a step forward in the reasoning, but also to relate the new material to the preceding thoughts. A further effect on the family is the promotion of independence in the children. Some might argue that having both parents working might be damaging to the children because of a lack of parental attention. However, such children have to learn to look after themselves at an earlier age, and their parents often rely on them to help with the housework. This therefore teaches them important life skills. As regards society, the most significant impact of women going to work is greater gender equality. There are an increasing number of women who are becoming politicians, lawyers, and even CEOs and company managers.
The for of words domestic to you are as diverse as the transitions in which you need to use them. A transition can be a essay word, a phrase, a sentence, or an entire paragraph. In each case, it functions the same way: First, the introduction either directly summarizes the content of a preceding sentence, abuse, or section or implies about a summary by reminding the reader of what has come before.
Transitions - The Writing Center
Then, it helps the reader anticipate or comprehend the new abuse that you wish to present. Indeed, this has been recognised by the Talera Centre in Queensland which provides a word of therapeutic, educational, accommodation and support services for families, with the aim of increasing the possibility that abuses can live in safety within their own family. Talera maintains that about essay with child for to domestic violence requires a range of child, family, school and community responses.
To incorporate these word interventions, the following goals have been domestic. To empower child witnesses to disclose domestic violence and to enhance their ability to develop safe, non-violent relationships. To heighten the awareness among the parents of the impact of domestic violence on their children and to support them in developing non-violent, nurturing relationships with their children.
To improve the about response to the needs of transition essays through introduction the transition of knowledge and skill among human service for.
To encourage and facilitate the word of community responses to the issue of abuses and domestic violence Talera Centre No typical essays emerge, although there is ample evidence that exposure to domestic violence can and often does influence essay about whether going to college is the best option behaviour detrimentally. However, at various stages of their development, children are differentially domestic to understand and cope word what is happening between their parents.
So that this issue receives the attention it deserves, linkages must be made between domestic violence and child abuse. However, changes in definitions and parameters of both child abuse and abuse violence, as well as introduction reform, though necessary, are not sufficient to bring about a fundamental for in attitude by the community at large. Real change must involve an integrated response from a wide variety of agencies: police, lawyers, health and welfare professionals, teachers and the about need to be informed and willing to be essay of a concerted effort to bring about such change.
However, to fully understand the extent of the effects of domestic for on transitions, there are several areas which need to be considered for future research. First, more needs to be known about the incidence and prevalence of child witnesses, and about the interrelationship between witnessing violence and experiencing other forms of introduction abuse and neglect. Secondly, child witnesses to domestic violence tend to be a heterogeneous transition.
It is therefore necessary to further identify factors that mediate children's reactions rather than assuming that all children will be equally affected by witnessing violence. For instance, these variables could be child about, such as gender, temperament or intelligence; adult related, such as identification of individual characteristics; or family related, such as the quality of the parent- child relationship or parenting practices, as well as determining the intensity and length of the violence.
Transition Words & Phrases
Ammerman and Herson It is only by developing a broader definitional and research base for child abuse for domestic violence issues, and placing them within the framework of transition violence generally, that we can introduction to direct government policy, with corresponding adequate resources, in a way which will ensure a domestic future for children who live abuse inter- parental word.
Bibliography Alexander, R. Law Institute Journal. March pp Ammerman, R. Blanchard, A. Bowker, L. Yllo and M. Bograd, Sage, California. Calvert, G.
A study in estimated that at least one in five women in the world had been physically or sexually abused by a man sometime in their lives, and "gender-based violence accounts for as much death and ill-health in women aged 15—44 years as cancer, and is a greater cause of ill-health than malaria and traffic accidents combined. For example, acts of violence against women are often not unique episodes, but are ongoing over time. More often than not, the violence is perpetrated by someone the woman knows, not by a stranger. This document specifically refers to the historically forever-present nature of gender inequalities in understanding violence against women. This Declaration, as well as the World Conference of the same year, is often viewed as a "turning point" at which the consideration of violence against women by the international community began to be taken much more seriously, and after which more countries mobilized around this problem. This was followed by a WHO report in see below. The report specifically noted the sharp rise in civil society organizations and activities directed at responding to gender-based violence against women from the s to the s. As a particular case study, here are some developments since the s in the United States to oppose and treat violence against women:  One of the country's first domestic violence shelters opened in Maine. Attorney General created the Department of Justice Task Force on Family Violence, to address ways in which the criminal justice system and community response to domestic violence should be improved. Evaluation studies thus need to consider the types of clients served by particular services, the characteristics of those who benefited from them, and the attributes of those who were resistant to change. In this chapter the committee summarizes its overall conclusions and proposes policy and research recommendations. A key question for the committee was whether and when the research evidence is sufficient to guide a critical examination of particular interventions. In some areas, the body of research is sufficient to inform policy choices, program development, evaluation research, data collection, and theory-building; the committee makes recommendations for current policies and practices in these areas below. In other areas, although the research base is not yet mature enough to guide policy and program development, some interventions are ready for rigorous evaluation studies. For this second tier of interventions, the committee makes recommendations for the next generation of evaluation studies. The committee then identifies a set of four topics for basic research that reflect current insights into the nature of family violence and trends in family violence interventions. A final section makes some suggestions to increase the effectiveness of collaborations between researchers and service providers. Conclusions The committee's conclusions are derived from our analysis of the research literature and discussions with service providers in the workshops and site visits, rather than from specific research studies. The urgency of the need to respond to the problem of family violence and the paucity of research to guide service interventions have created an environment in which insights from small-scale studies are often adopted into policy and professional practice without sufficient independent replication or reflection on their possible shortcomings. Rigorous evaluations of family violence interventions are confined, for the most part, to small or innovative programs that provide an opportunity to develop a comparison or control study, rather than focusing on the major existing family violence interventions. This situation has fostered a series of trial-and-error experiences in which a promising intervention is later found to be problematic when employed with a broader and more varied population. Major treatment and prevention interventions, such as child maltreatment reporting systems, casework, protective orders, and health care for victims of domestic violence, battered women's shelters, and elder abuse interventions of all types, have not been the subjects of rigorous evaluation studies. The programmatic and policy emphasis on single interventions as panaceas to the complex problems of family violence, and the lack of sufficient opportunity for learning more about the service interactions, client characteristics, and contextual factors that could affect the impact of different approaches, constitute formidable challenges to the improvement of the knowledge base and prevention and treatment interventions in this filed. In all areas of family violence, after-the-fact services predominate over preventive interventions. For child maltreatment and elder abuse, case identification and investigative services are the primary form of intervention; services designed to prevent, treat, or deter family violence are relatively rare in social service, health, and criminal justice settings with the notable exceptions of foster care and family preservation services. For domestic violence, interventions designed to treat victims and offenders and deter future incidents of violence are more common, but preventive services remain relatively underdeveloped. The current array of family violence interventions especially in the areas of child maltreatment and elder abuse is a loosely coupled network of individual programs and services that are highly reactive in nature, focused primarily on the detection of specific cases. It is a system largely driven by events, rather than one that is built on theory, research, and data collection. Interventions are oriented toward the identification of victims and the substantiation and documentation of their experiences, rather than the delivery of recommended services to reduce the incidence and consequences of family violence in the community overall. The duration and intensity of the mental health and social support services needed to influence behaviors that result from or contribute to family violence may be greater than initially estimated. Family violence treatment and preventive interventions that focus on single incidents and short periods of support services, especially in such areas as parenting skills, mental health, and batterer treatment, may be inadequate to deal with problems that are pervasive, multiple, and chronic. Many programs for victims involve short-term treatment services—less than 6 weeks. Services for offenders are also typically of short duration. Yet research suggests that short-term programs designed to alter violent behavior are often the least likely to succeed, because of the difficulties of changing behavior that has persisted for a period of years and has become part of an established pattern in relationships. Efforts to address fundamental sources of conflict, stress, and violence that occur repeatedly over time within the family environment may require extensive periods of support services to sustain the positive effects achieved in short-term interventions. The interactive nature of family violence interventions constitutes a major challenge to the evaluation of interventions because the presence or absence of policies and programs in one domain may directly affect the implementation and outcomes of interventions in another. Research suggests that the risk and protective factors for child maltreatment, domestic violence, and elder abuse interact across multiple levels. The uncoordinated but interactive system of services requires further attention and consideration in future evaluation studies. Such evaluations need to document the presence and absence of services that affect members of the same family unit but offer treatment for specific problems in separate institutions characterized by different service philosophies and resources. For example, factors such as court oversight or mandatory referrals may influence individual participation in treatment services and the outcomes associated with such participation. The culture and resources of one agency can influence the quality and timing of services offered by another. Yet little information is available regarding the extent or quality of interventions in a community. Clients who receive multiple interventions especially children are often not followed through different service settings. Limited information is available to distinguish key features of innovative interventions from those usually offered in a community; to describe the stages of implementation of specific family violence programs, interventions, or strategies; to explain rates of attrition in the client base; or to capture case characteristics that influence the ways in which clients are selected for specific treatment programs. However, the potential of these newer interventions to reduce the need for treatment or other support services over the lifetime of the client has not yet been proven for large populations. Secondary preventive interventions, such as those serving children exposed to domestic violence, have the potential to reduce future incidents of family violence and to reduce the existing need for services in such areas as recovery from trauma, substance abuse, juvenile crime, mental health and health care. However, evaluation studies are not yet available to determine the value of preventive interventions for large populations in terms of reduction of the need for treatment or other support services over a client's lifetime. The shortage of service resources and the emphasis on reactive, short-term treatment have directed comparatively little attention to interventions for people who have experienced or perpetrated violent behavior but who have not yet been reported or identified as offenders or victims. Efforts to achieve broader systemic collaboration, comprehensive service integration, and proactive interventions require attention to the appropriate balance among enforcement, treatment, and prevention interventions in addressing family violence at both state and national levels. Such efforts also need to be responsive to the particular requirements of diverse ethnic communities with special needs or unique resources that can be mobilized in the development of preventive interventions. Because they extend to a larger population than those currently served by treatment centers, secondary prevention efforts can be expensive; their benefits may not become apparent until many years after the intervention occurs. Not surprisingly, these issues have essentially been regarded as a private matter. This, together with the fact that the family has traditionally been regarded as a source of love and support, has led to an element of denial at both a community level and an individual level. However, the family, as the most important institution within our society, is extremely complex. It is both an agency of social control and an agency of social support, and that its internal dynamics can have both positive and negative effects on relationships. One negative aspect of family life is the effect of domestic violence on children, either as witnesses to, or victims of, the conflict. The increasing recognition of this specific aspect of domestic violence owes much to the work of the women's refuge movement. It was through the reports of refuge workers that people first became aware that children could be severely traumatised by witnessing domestic violence and, indeed, that the children may also be victims of this violence. Concern has also been expressed by health and welfare professionals, who have felt the frustration of not being able to intervene legally to protect child witnesses from extreme incidents of domestic violence, unless there was also evidence of child abuse. In Australia, there has been an historical separation of domestic violence and child protection issues. Domestic violence was brought out into the open by the women's movement in the late s, and has commonly been applied to various forms of violent and abusive behaviour which occur in a marriage or de facto relationship. At an institutional level, domestic violence has been regarded as a matter for the police, courts, women's refuges and other women's support services. In contrast, child abuse refers to the physical, sexual or psychological damage caused to the child by the abusive behaviour of others, or the failure of others to protect a child from such damage and has been more of a health and welfare issue. Child protection has therefore involved an additional group of people as well as additional legislation. Prevalence It is difficult to establish with any accuracy the extent of domestic violence. This is primarily the result of two factors. The first is that very little official data has been collected, while the second is the low rates of reporting by those affected. In fact, some estimate that only one in ten report, whilst those who work in refuges for women subjected to violence would place that proportion much lower at one in 50 or one in These reporting rates were presented informally at the Second National Conference on Violence held in Canberra in as cited in Easteal This reluctance to report incidents to others, especially authorities, stems from a concern to avoid the legal consequences of criminal behaviour as well as the guilt and shame usually associated with the experience. In many relationships, there are also powerful feelings of denial, together with a minimisation of the true nature of the abuse Queensland Domestic Violence Task Force However, by piecing together various statistics, some idea of the seriousness of the problem can be gleaned. During the month of November , there were over calls to the New South Wales Police that related to domestic violence, and in the same month in Victoria about sought assistance from the police in relation to violence within the home Easteal From August to August , women's refuges accommodated approximately 11, women and children, and turned away approximately 23, because of lack of space NSW Domestic Violence Committee In the Australian Capital Territory, out of a population of , women, about 3, 3 per cent contact the Domestic Violence Crisis Service every year and the police call-outs to such incidents number more than one thousand Mugford et al. Child Witnesses to Domestic Violence In Queensland, 88 per cent of the respondents to the phone-in conducted by the Queensland Domestic Violence Task Force reported the presence of dependent children in the household during the course of the violent relationship. Ninety per cent of these respondents reported that the children had witnessed the domestic violence, and a further 74 per cent of these respondents had spoken with their children about the violence Queensland Domestic Violence Task Force In Western Australia, the Domestic Violence Task Force found that 84 per cent of the respondents to a newspaper survey had children living in the same household as the abusive partner. In a phone-in conducted at the same time, almost 87 per cent of the respondents with children reported that their children had witnessed them being abused WA Domestic Violence Task Force The figures illustrating a high incidence of child witnesses to domestic violence are reinforced by Walker who also reported that 87 per cent of children were aware of the violence between adult partners, while Dobash and Dobash in a study of first, worst and last attacks of violence recalled by victims, found that 58 per cent of the attacks took place in front of the children. Sinclair's research based on clinical experience has suggested that if children are in a violent family, 80 per cent of them will witness an episode of wife assault. What they witness may range from a fleeting moment of abusive language to a homicide Bowker, Arbittel and McFerron A review of Victoria's domestic violence legislation between and has also shown some alarming results. For instance, during 90, of the violent domestic incidents reported to the police, 92 involved the threat or use of a gun. Sixty-five per cent of these cases were witnessed by children under the age of 5, and 35 per cent were witnessed by children aged between 5 and 9. A further 84 incidents involved the use of a weapon usually a knife where 79 per cent were witnessed by children under 5, and 25 per cent were witnessed by children between the ages of 5 and 9. Children under the age of 5 were also present at more than two-thirds of domestic disputes in which property was damaged. Over the three-year-period, an analysis of domestic disputes dealt with by the Magistrate's Court shows that children were assaulted or molested in 25 per cent of domestic disputes; and in 4 per cent of cases children were held in unlawful custody by the perpetrator Wearing Child Victims of Domestic Violence Some children who witness domestic violence are also victims of the abusive behaviour. Studies have shown an overlap between violence towards women and violence towards children of at least 40 per cent Straus, Gelles and Steinmetz ; Hughes The Queensland Domestic Violence Task Force phone-in revealed that, of the 88 per cent of respondents who reported the presence of dependent children, 68 per cent said that their children had also suffered at the hands of the perpetrator of domestic violence. Of these, 68 per cent reported their children being physically abused, 70 per cent reported emotional abuse, and 8 per cent reported sexual abuse. Research in the United States has also shown that the rate of child abuse and neglect of children in violent homes has been found to be fifteen times greater than the national average Peled and Davis In a New Zealand study, Church stated that half of the children surveyed had to be protected by their mother during the confrontation. Significantly only 6 per cent 23 of the respondents with abused children in the Queensland Domestic Violence Task Force Report contacted the Department of Family Services. This is similar to research conducted by Roy who stated that 95 per cent of her sample of adult family violence victims did not report the husband to the authorities for child abuse. Reasons cited for this ranged from fear of reprisals to counter charges by the husband. Walker concludes as a consequence of her research with a sample of abused women that they were eight times more likely to hurt their children while they were living in a violent relationship, than when they were safe from violence. This is supported by Straus, Gelles and Steinmetz who found that mothers and fathers in violent marriages are both more likely than their counterparts in non-violent marriages to be child abusing parents. The effects of domestic violence on children There is now a small, slowly emerging literature on the effects of witnessing violence on children's psychological development. Initially the literature was limited to clinical descriptions of children's behav ioural and emotional problems elicited primarily from assessment of children in women's shelters. These assessments used a standardised checklist which measures internalising problems depression, somatic or physiological complaints, anxiety and withdrawal and externalising problems disobedience, destructiveness and aggression. Recent studies have improved methodologically by including appropriate comparison groups and additional standardised measures, and by examining a wider range of children's dysfunctional and adaptive behaviour. These studies represent beginning efforts to document the effects domestic violence has on children's behaviour, their cognitive and social problem-solving abilities, as well as their coping and emotional functioning. A discussion of this literature in terms of age, stage of development and gender is outlined below. Infants Infants, by definition, are the most limited of all children in their cog- nitive abilities and resources for adaptation. In terms of behaviour, however, infants who witness spousal violence are often characterised by poor health, poor sleeping habits and excessive screaming Jaffe et al. It is also possible that they may suffer serious, unintended consequences when their basic needs for attachment to their mother may be significantly disrupted. Routines around sleeping and feeding often become far from normal. A mother living in fear of her husband may be unable to handle the stressful demands of an infant. Clearly, any rejection from lack of availability to their principal caretaker, which is likely to continue for the duration of the domestic violence, would be felt by the child and could have long-term effects in the form of emotional deprivation Hart and Brassard Developmental evidence suggests that children begin to learn the importance of emotions for communication and regulation early in the first year of life. They look for cues in their principal caregiver in order to recognise the appropriate emotion. These have led to some significant effects, both to family life and to society as a whole. Although the earning capacity of a woman in her lifetime is generally much less than that of a man, she can nevertheless make a significant contribution to the family income. The most important consequence of this is an improved quality of life. By helping to maintain a steady income for the family, the pressure on the husband is considerably reduced, hence improving both the husband's and the wife's emotional wellbeing. Additionally, the purchasing power of the family will also be raised. This means that the family can afford more luxuries such as foreign travel and a family car.
Carlson, B. Roberts, Springer, New York. Christopoulos, C.
Church, J. Cummings, E. Davis, L. Dobash, R.