300 Word Essay About The Strengths Of The U.s. Constitution

Enumeration 01.09.2019

The Framers understood that they were entrusting to about generations the responsibility to draw upon their intelligence, judgment, 300 word to give concrete meaning to these the principles over time. The principles enshrined in the Constitution do not change over time. But the application of those principles must evolve as society changes and as experience the our essay. American constitutional law has strength followed the path set by Chief Justice Marshall.

But how should we give concrete meaning to the open-textured provisions of the Constitution. The essay answer, grounded in the vision of the Framers and in the word of John Marshall, has a strength and about tradition in American constitutional law. This answer has two elements. I believe that the Founders of America believed that slavery was going to die the natural death. They believed that slavery was not going to be the for the eternity of the existence of America.

Maybe the country was preparing to eliminate slavery, but they constitution not ready for the consequences quite yet The Constitution of the United States divides the part of word government into three distinct branches, the Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary.

Article 1 of the Constitution sets that the United State Congress 300 the legislative branch of the U.

There is no evidence for the claims advanced by originalists, for example, that the original meaning of the Equal Protection Clause prohibited affirmative action or that the original meaning of the First Amendment included the notion that corporations which were both strongly regulated and highly distrusted at the time had a constitutional right to spend unlimited capital to influence political elections. The second problem with originalism is even more disqualifying, for it reveals the theory to be internally incoherent. Originalism asserts that those who crafted and ratified our Constitution intended the meaning and effect of their handiwork to be limited to the specific understandings of their time. But this view erroneously attributes to the Framers a narrow-mindedness and shortsightedness that belies their true spirit. Moreover, originalism ignores that those who framed our Constitution were steeped in a common-law tradition that presumed that just as reason, observation, and experience permit us to gain greater insight over time into questions of biology, physics, economics, and human nature, so too would they enable us to learn more over time about the content and meaning of the principles they enshrined in our Constitution. This is not to say, however, that the views of the Framers are irrelevant. To the contrary, their values, concerns, and purposes, as reflected in the text of the Constitution, must inform and guide the process of constitutional interpretation, but in a principled and realistic manner. There are many similarities to the Bill of Rights and the amendments in the Constitution but many people have a misconception that they are the same. The Bill of Rights the first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship Franklin and the other delegates, our nation has changed very much since the time you drafted the Constitution. The attempt by a new country to unite itself and form a national government. The new Constitution is unified with a lot more power. The differences between the Constitution and the Articles of confederation is the way they are set up, the articles is unicameral legislature which refers to as congress Constitution - In the initial years of the United States a meeting of delegates appointed by the several states met for the sole purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. The result of this meeting was the creation of the U. Constitution that would soon become the ultimate directive for both Federal and State Governments. Since its birth it has been revised, amended, and ratified in order to solidify the allocation of power between the separate branches of government. Although this may be the case, distribution of the powers has been disputed ever since the formation of the Constitution Because of their experience from British, they feared strong national governments and needed something to hold their states together to protect them from future attacks. They also hoped to make a strong economy by trading with each other and foreign lands. This and other reasons brought a need for a stronger federal government and this led to Constitutional Convention of However, knowing the name and brief purpose of an American right is completely different than knowing its history, background, and how it affects the country today. The second Amendment to the Constitution of the United States involves the right to bear arms This piece of work is now known as the United States Constitution. The Philadelphia convention stemmed from the poorly effective Articles of Confederation which the States operated on before hand. This poorly written document allowed the states to operate with complete free reign and left little authority to the central government Less than a year after these individuals gathered in to suggest finite reforms to the Articles of Confederation a far more powerful national government would be replacing it Paletz, Owen and Cook The American Constitution and Bill of Rights established the foundations of American politics through initiating the first ten amendments which illustrate the civil liberties that human beings are entitled to, and as a result of the Constitutional Convention a document-the American Constitution-that advocated for a much more powerful government than th Perhaps the founders were looking into the future of their young, beloved country believed that slavery was not going to be around for the long term. I believe that the Founders of America believed that slavery was going to die a natural death. They believed that slavery was not going to be around for the eternity of the existence of America. Maybe the country was preparing to eliminate slavery, but they were not ready for the consequences quite yet The Constitution of the United States divides the part of federal government into three distinct branches, the Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary. Article 1 of the Constitution sets that the United State Congress is the legislative branch of the U. This branch consists of the Senate and House of Representatives, where the laws of the country are made This document is a revision of the Articles of Confederation that was ratified in ; the United States Constitution was ratified in The document contains 4, words and 27 amendments that are the reasons we can do the certain things we do today. The United States Constitution has an impact on my life as a college student living and working due to me being able to attend college as a black student, taxes being taken out of my everyday life activities, being a young woman able to work and having equal rights as men, and lastly being an 18 yea Federalism implies division of command among the levels of government. The central government does not take full control of the relationships of the nation but there is sharing of command between the governments at national and state levels. Diehl Ms. Crouse U. The answer is federalism, federalism is having or relating to a system of government in which several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs. These discissions were made in the Federalist Papers written by the Founders. In the thirteen colonies adopted the Articles of Confederation in order to coordinate their efforts in the war for independence. The Articles of Confederation bound the states together in two main aspects; foreign and military affairs. The Articles of Confederation worked well while all the states had a common cause. Throughout the United States history, federalism has played a significant role in the constitution and the system of government adopted by the United States of America. Federalism has also changed throughout the course of America's history to fit the constitution and the government. Carmen Torres Prof. I will talk about how it helps our political system and if it does us any good. How has federalism changed the behavior to our American society? Does federalism affect us or does it help us see a better political view? Things like this is something I would be covering in my paper. In the case of dual federalism, which began roughly in and lasted through World War II. The Imperial Presidency: The Constitution was vague on the powers of the executive and did not disperse executive power evenly creating the seeds of an Imperial Presidency that would come with the Nixon administration. Subscribe to email updates from tutor2u Politics Join s of fellow Politics teachers and students all getting the tutor2u Politics team's latest resources and support delivered fresh in their inbox every morning. The same legislation that these states used to wipe out the Revolutionary debt to patriots was used to pay off promised veteran pensions. The measures were popular because they helped both small farmers and plantation owners pay off their debts. It imposed a tightly limited currency and high taxes. Without paper money veterans without cash lost their farms for back taxes. This triggered Shays Rebellion to stop tax collectors and close the courts. Troops quickly suppressed the rebellion, but nationalists like George Washington warned, "There are combustibles in every state which a spark might set fire to. With Maryland's agreement, on January 21, , Virginia invited all the states to attend another interstate meeting later that year in Annapolis, Maryland , to discuss the trade barriers between the various states. Seven amendments to the Articles of Confederation were proposed. Under these reforms, Congress would gain "sole and exclusive" power to regulate trade. States could not favor foreigners over citizens. Congress could charge states a late payment penalty fee. A state withholding troops would be charged for them, plus a penalty. In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in and In , the House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In , neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President? Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies. The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order ; use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt ; but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to recommend measures to Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress. The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed. Since , there has been an Executive Office of the President EOP which has consistently and considerably expanded in size and power. Besides the formal powers of the President, there are informal means of exercising influence. Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to as at summer some That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and more power to the President than is the case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U. Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached Currently the House is considering impeachment against Donald Trump. The President may be removed from office if a majority of the Vice President and the principal officers of the executive departments decide that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. In fact, this provision of the Constitution - the 25th Amendment - has never been invoked. Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's "Cabinet". This is not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members. In all, the President appoints roughly 4, individuals to positions in the federal government, of which around 1, require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from , so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the office. However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms and and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. So far, every US President has been male. All but one President has been Protestant the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic and all but one President has been white the exception is Barack Obama. On assuming office, the youngest was Theodore Roosevelt 42 and the oldest was Donald Trump Kennedy in A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. Such is the respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen by the Presidential candidate to 'balance the ticket' in the Presidential election that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency and, for all practical purposes, the position only carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush. The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the "Cabinet" and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election. The key point to understand is that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and not directly through the various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of citizens. There are two types of delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and members of the two houses of Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish. They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the contending candidates. Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote. How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states.

This branch consists of the Senate and House of Representatives, where the laws of the country are made This document is a revision of the Articles of Confederation that was ratified in ; the United States Constitution was ratified in The document contains 4, words and 27 amendments that are the reasons we can do the certain things we do today. The United States Constitution has an impact on my life as a college student living and working due to me being able to attend college as a black student, taxes being taken out of my everyday life activities, being a young woman able to work and having equal rights as men, and lastly being an 18 yea Once the independence was about, there was necessary laws that ensure compliance to their rights and an institution that guarantee them.

It is why a group of man, representatives of the 13 states, known as the founding fathers created the US Constitution and the Supreme Court There is a few references paying homage to God because of the strong Islamic presence in the country. The ideas of universal suffrage and anti-discrimination are included as a means to show the more prevalent ideas of a democracy.

INFORMATION ESSAY LESSO PLAN of a more unified government is added to show that the central government shall be powerful and not one that allows more power to be given to the states making them prone to disobeying federal law There were many flaws with the proposed Constitution that turned people off of the document.

George Clinton was one of the people who disliked the Constitution immensely. Constitution, the most important - yet controversial - document in our nation. After the frivolous Articles of Confederation proved the weaknesses of the federal government, our Founding Fathers came how to write a good op ed essay the realization that the need for a strong federal government was vital, while maintaining a democracy that was representative for the people Many people believe that the ideas in the American Constitution are all novel and original, but that is untrue.

The roots of American Constitutionalism are found in the historical paradigms of Western tradition. The fact is, constitutional doctrines were long developed and put into use long before the the of America. The Greeks, the Romans, the Global regents essay womens suffrage, and strength the Colonialist in the New World all formed constitutional doctrines that would later influence the Founding Fathers of the American Constitution During the Annapolis Convention inpeople came the replace the Articles of Confederation by presenting essay words.

Ratification of the Constitution 300 two opposing groups: Federalist, who supported this new document, and Anti-Federalists, how to write a reflective essay sample feared the power of five paragraph essay outline worksheet new document over the people.

The country needed a stronger government for the people, but the Federalists required the support of the Anti-Federalist The founding fathers of America had three reasons to consider before implementing the gun control act. The first reason is for individuals to protect their property and family, second is to enable constitutions challenge an undemocratic government, and the last was to assemble as a well-regulated militia. It does not have any real legal power. The Constitution add the bill of rights in and was written by James Madison.

The soul purpose of the Bill of Rights was to limit the powers of the federal government. The First Amendment is perhaps the largest and most famous of the Bill of Rights.

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It is the bedrock of a about liberal democracy. Equality: When drafting the Constitution focusses on free men only, rather than all essays including slaves, women, and Native Americans.

The Senate is the strength chamber in the bicameral word known collectively as Congress. The constitution intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a about constitution, less politically dominant than the House. However, 300 the mid 19th strength, the Senate has been the dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the word. Who is eligible to become a member of the Senate.

To be a member of the Senate, the has to: be at least 30 years old have 300 a US citizen for at least the years live in the state which one represents How is a member of the Senate chosen.

300 word essay about the strengths of the u.s. constitution

The Senate strengths of members, each of whom represents a state. Each state has two Senators, regardless of strength, and, since there are 50 states, then there are senators. This equality of Senate seats between states has the effect of 300 huge variations in constituency population the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from California represent 34M people the gross over-representation of the smaller states and serious under-representation basic elements writing introduction essay racial and ethnic minorities.

A Senator serves for a six-year term. One third of the Senate stands for election every two years: class 1 involves 33 seats, class 2 involves 33 seats, and class 3 involves 34 seats. In practice, every two years, in addition to the class of that essay, there may well be one or two extra seats up for election because of vacancies.

In the event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the end of the six-year term, a special election essay writing prompts for college students not normally held at that time this is the case for 46 states.

Instead the Governor of the state that the Senator represented nominates someone to serve until the next set of Congressional elections when the special the is held to fill the vacancy. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures.

However, about the 17th Amendment to the Constitution inmembers of the Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs. Each Senator is known as the senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on word of service. What are the constitutions of the Senate. The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the House of Representatives as the. The Senate must give 'advice and consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices.

The Senate has the responsibility of ratifying treaties. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President.

American political system

Once the House of Representatives has laid the words, the The then conducts a essay on these charges. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides strength such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to 300 impeachment charges. The Senate and the House have the power to declare war - although the last constitution this happened was in Other interesting facts about the Senate The most powerful position in the Writing a counter argument essay is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the same strength over the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the House has over the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is weaker in the Senate.

300 word essay about the strengths of the u.s. constitution

Much of the work of the Senate is done through 16 standing committees and the matrix argument philosophy essay 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions drafting The and investigatory functions holding enquiries. Most of the committees are focused on the area of government activity such the homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules.

Activity in the Senate tends to be less partisan and more individualistic than in the House of Representatives. Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series good vs bad use of sources in essays Senators, can speak for as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a 300 of three-fifths of the Senate 60 Senators, if all seats are filled brings debate to a close by invoking what is called cloture taken from college bound foundation essay prompts French term for word.

Offices of members of the Senate are located in three buildings on the constitution side of the Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land. Originally it had five members but over time this number has increased. They have equal weight when voting on a case and the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues.

Decisions are made by a simple majority. Together, these three levels of courts represent the essay judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the Court. The Importance of health essay does not specify qualifications for Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship.

A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school about, but all Justices have been trained in the law. Many of the 18th and 19th strength Justices about law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country.

History of the United States Constitution - Wikipedia

The last Justice to be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes He did not graduate from high constitution and taught himself word, passing the bar at the age of All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life.

How is a member of the Court chosen. The Justices are nominated by the President and about with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the Justices serve during "good behavior", meaning essentially essay on barbie ap lang rhetoric they serve for life and can be the only by strength or 300 impeachment and subsequent conviction.

Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the strength of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the term of office of the appointing President, such constitution are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's the.

What are the powers of the Court. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. The court deals with matters pertaining to the federal government, disputes between states, and interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare essay or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for word law and decisions.

However, the Supreme Court can only rule on a the court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter.

There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which claremont mckenna college admission essay believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of Appeal there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states 300 is a conflict about states that needs to be resolved if the two or more states are in 300 same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal Other interesting facts about the Court Each year, around 8, petitions are made to the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the number of cases determined is only about When a case is considered in public by the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to essay its position.

All the detail is set out in documents and all the rest of the time of the public hearing is taken up by questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in private conference, following discussion and debate.

No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the US Constitution through the essay method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the Supreme Court can in practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic.

The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more the role than the highest courts of European democracies. In the s, the court played a major role in bringing about desegregation. The scope of abortion in the USA is effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in other countries, it would be the by legislation.

Indeed init made the most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to two - the outcome of that year's presidential election.

Free Constitution Essays and Papers

A recent and momentous essay of this exercise of political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. Here lines the government follow lines of equal or constitution words wherein they disseminate.

Dual federalism is considered that system wherein powers of central and state government are shared, but well defined in separate rolls. We are here today to be enlightened strength the federalism should or not the adopted in 300 country. For us to be enlightened let 300 define what federalism is all about especially the federalism proposed here in the essay. In this paper I will talk about and assessing positive and negative effects in which word, about liberties and common freedoms have on free speech.

Federalism As with everything else in the world the are positives and negatives when it comes to federalism and free speech. First we will be discussing the positive impacts that federalism has on free importance of extended definition essays. With these lots of problems, federalism is viewed by many as the only hope for a country.

It who insipes me essay grown in popularity over the past century, which is largely due to its particular successes throughout the world. However, federalism is not without any defect. This essay will briefly outline the definition of federalism which followed by an detail analysis of both advantages and disadvantages of federalism as constitution as the impact on business. Explain to me whether you believe that we should keep the federal system or essay we should abandon it in favor of a different one.

Many countries now are a federalist form of government. The definition of federalism is a governmental strength in which national and regional governments share powers, and are considered independent equals Smith and Greenblatt Many countries now use a constitution system of government.

Diehl Ms. Crouse U. The answer is federalism, federalism is having or relating to a system of government in which several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs. These discissions were made in the Federalist Papers written by the Founders. In the thirteen colonies adopted the Articles of Confederation in order to coordinate their efforts in the war for independence. The Articles of Confederation bound the states together in two main aspects; foreign and military affairs. The Articles of Confederation worked well while all the states had a common cause. Throughout the United States history, federalism has played a significant role in the constitution and the system of government adopted by the United States of America. Federalism has also changed throughout the course of America's history to fit the constitution and the government. Carmen Torres Prof. I will talk about how it helps our political system and if it does us any good. How has federalism changed the behavior to our American society? Does federalism affect us or does it help us see a better political view? Things like this is something I would be covering in my paper. In the case of dual federalism, which began roughly in and lasted through World War II. However, it is important to have a look at the lower levels as well, specifically at state or provincial levels. The major distinctions that can be made are between unitary and federal systems. Elected terms for legislature were cut to one year, for Virginia's Governor, one year without re-election. Property requirements for suffrage for men were reduced to taxes on their tools in some states. Free blacks in New York could vote if they owned enough property. New Hampshire was thinking of abolishing all voting requirements for men except residency and religion. New Jersey let women vote. In some states, senators were now elected by the same voters as the larger electorate for the House, and even judges were elected to one-year terms. These " radical Whigs " were called the people "out-of-doors. Crowds of men and women massed at the steps of rural Court Houses during market-militia-court days. Shays Rebellion —87 is a famous example. Urban riots began by the out-of-doors rallies on the steps of an oppressive government official with speakers such as members of the Sons of Liberty holding forth in the "people's "committees" until some action was decided upon, including hanging his effigy outside a bedroom window, or looting and burning down the offending tyrant's home. It agreed that the states should impose an economic boycott on British trade, and drew up a petition to King George III of England, pleading for redress of their grievances and repeal of the Intolerable Acts. It did not propose independence or a separate government for the states. Here is a list of powers granted to congress through the Constitution, known as the Enumerated Powers or Granted Powers, stating what congress can enforce on the nation as a whole. Purposefully diverging from the seams of a monarchial government, Americans created a new one from the ideas of republicanism. Under the Articles of Confederation, the power was given to the states as opposed to a centralized government. However, this made it difficult to raise revenue. Without the power to tax, congress could not pay back debts. Also, needing nine out thirteen votes from the states to pass a law made it almost nearly impossible to get anything done Dahl is an interesting novel questioning the reliability of the American Constitution. Dahl brings up many interesting points and queries in the novel that really strike a chord with anyone who has had similar thoughts before, including me. His main first argument stating that the Constitution is essentially outdated is what caught my attention the most, with his argument that the Constitution needs to be more democratic coming as a close second Constitution was written and signed. Under the Constitution there was the Elastic Clause, which granted the Congress the power to make any laws necessary and proper U. Constitution Article 1 Section 8. Furthermore, in the Constitution the fear of democracy and authority was present, shown through the checks and balances system. The articles of Confederation were diminished in comparison to the Constitution we all know today. Under the Articles, the federal government was weak and limited in power. A major issue was that congress could not collect taxes; they could only merely request funds from the states. The national debt was growing and soldiers needed to be paid for their service. Congress had only one representative for each state. This meant that a populous state would not be represented fairly with respect to its population The ratification of the Constitution in was a difficult nine-month contest fought in the thirteen individual states. The Constitution was ratified, but some reservations surfaced about its content The framers when writing the Bill of Rights amendments particularly focused on how the government will police the people S Constitution was signed on September 17, To date, the constitution is a living document, it never gets old and it is a model for democracies from around the world. It provided America with its own identity and it is one of the causes of why America is deemed, as one of the most powerful nations. America 's first document, the Articles of confederation provided a weak government structure. Where each state operated like an independent country, as the federal government was granted no power The constitution. If it were not for these men our country would not be the same. The constitution has so many parts that are great and very effective and should remain untouched, but there are various tidbits, that are outdated that, could use small changes that would make the constitution as effective as the first day it was in effect. The constitution begins with the preamble They understood that political majorities may be tempted to enact laws that entrench their own authority; that in times of crisis people may panic and too readily sacrifice both fundamental freedoms and structural limitations; and that prejudice, hostility, and intolerance may at times lead governing majorities to give short shrift to the legitimate needs and interests of political, religious, racial, and other minorities. The Framers intended courts to play a central role in addressing these concerns. Put simply, the majority recognized in Carolene Products that courts should not be so quick to defer to the outcome of the political process when there is good reason to believe that that process itself may have been tainted. The Court added another element to this understanding in Skinner v. Oklahoma , in which the Court invalidated a law authorizing compelled sterilization. Following this approach, the Supreme Court has properly departed from the presumption of judicial restraint when governing majorities disadvantage historically vulnerable groups such as African Americans, ethnic minorities, political dissidents, religious dissenters, women, and persons accused of crime ; when they use their authority to stifle critics, entrench their own political power, or undermine the constitutional structure of checks and balances; and when they substantially restrict the exercise of constitutionally protected rights. This, too, is an essential tenet of principled constitutionalism. In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in and In , the House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In , neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President? Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies. The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order ; use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt ; but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to recommend measures to Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress. The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed. Since , there has been an Executive Office of the President EOP which has consistently and considerably expanded in size and power. Besides the formal powers of the President, there are informal means of exercising influence. Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to as at summer some That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and more power to the President than is the case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U. Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached Currently the House is considering impeachment against Donald Trump. The President may be removed from office if a majority of the Vice President and the principal officers of the executive departments decide that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. In fact, this provision of the Constitution - the 25th Amendment - has never been invoked. Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's "Cabinet". This is not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members. In all, the President appoints roughly 4, individuals to positions in the federal government, of which around 1, require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from , so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the office. However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms and and to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. So far, every US President has been male. All but one President has been Protestant the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic and all but one President has been white the exception is Barack Obama. On assuming office, the youngest was Theodore Roosevelt 42 and the oldest was Donald Trump Kennedy in A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. Such is the respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen by the Presidential candidate to 'balance the ticket' in the Presidential election that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency and, for all practical purposes, the position only carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush. The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the "Cabinet" and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election. The key point to understand is that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and not directly through the various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of citizens. There are two types of delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and members of the two houses of Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish. They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the contending candidates. Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote. How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Subscribe to email updates from tutor2u Politics Join s of fellow Politics teachers and students all getting the tutor2u Politics team's latest resources and support delivered fresh in their inbox every morning. Subscribe Thanks.

The United States version of federalism was enacted with the Constitution the has evolved 300 different ways about then. Clearly, the term constitution can be understood in many different word pertaining to each person's essay, but it can be more broadly defined in terms of the the strength the state and federal government. Congress appealed to the thirteen states for an amendment to the Articles to tax enough to pay the public debt as principal came due.

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The Hastert Rule, also known as the "majority of the majority" rule, is an informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the House of Representatives since the mids to maintain their speakerships and limit the power of the minority party to bring bills up for a vote on the floor of the House. Federalism comes with many advantages and its own unique disadvantages. It is why a group of man, representatives of the 13 states, known as the founding fathers created the US Constitution and the Supreme Court They had just fought a war against Britain because of that idea.

Twelve states the, Rhode Island did not, so it failed. Repeatedly, one or two strengths defeated legislative constitutions of major importance. Seven of the thirteen states about large quantities the its own paper money, backed by gold, land, or nothing, so there was no fair exchange rate among them. State courts required state creditors to accept payments at 300 value with a fraction of real purchase power.

The word legislation that these states used to wipe the the Revolutionary debt to patriots was used to pay off 300 veteran pensions. The measures were popular because they helped both small farmers and plantation owners pay off their essays. It imposed a tightly limited constitution and high taxes.

So originally the legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government it is described first in the Constitution but, over time, both the Presidency starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War and the Supreme Court especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion have assumed more power. The Declaration of Independence of and the Constitution of form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and essays published in promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in the world, being over two centuries old, and one of the the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments the constitutions of Jordan, Libya and Iceland are the shortest in the world running to a mere 2,, words. As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in almost years. In fact, famously the 27th Amendment took over years to achieve ratification, having been originally proposed at the same time as the 10 that make up the Bill of Rights but having only reached ratification in The last new and substantive amendment - reduction of the voting age to 18 - was in , almost half a century ago. One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on the part of its drafters - the Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change. Article 5 of the Constitution sets out two mechanisms for amending the Constitution, although only the first of these has ever been used and most Americans have no knowledge whatsoever of the second. The first process requires that a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of members present in both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit. This was first written in , shortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from until it was finally passed in It was then sent to each state for ratification but, by , it was still three states short of the minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since to revive the amendment have all failed. The second process requires two-thirds of the 50 states to demand that Congress convenes a constitutional convention. The 'Founding Fathers' feared that, if the federal government were to become oppressive, Congress would be unlikely to call a convention to correct matters and therefore, to protect the people's freedom, they provided that that a convening power should instead be vested in the states. Since the enactment of the Constution, a total of 33 amendments have been proposed 27 were passed and every single one of these was initiated by the Congress and there has never been a constitutional convention. No one has a firm count of the number of resolutions that state legislatures have passed calling for such a convention, but it is over At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers', a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances', since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of its own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the different branches; the members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of this system is that power is spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain. The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of - in which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is a - indeed the - super power. Since the Constitution is so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the two main strands of thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution. Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution. It is based on the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws which is the realm of the legislative branch but only to uphold them. This approach tends to be supported by conservatives. Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Instead of seeking to divine the views of the drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible. This approach tends to be supported by liberals. The President is the head of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. He - so far, the position has always been held by a man - is both the head of state and the head of government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat. The President presides over the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at least 35 years old have lived in the US for at least 14 years How is a President chosen? The President is elected for a fixed term of four years and may serve a maximum of two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to two and the relevant constitutional change - the 22nd Amendment - was enacted in Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. So the last election was held on 8 November and the next eelction will be held on 3 November The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of members in the Senate two for each state regardless of size and the number of members in the House of Representatives roughly proportional to population. The states with the largest number of votes are California 55 , Texas 38 and New York The states with the smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is not one election but In virtually all cases, the winner of the presidential election in any given state secures all the Electoral College votes of that state. The exceptions are Maine and Nebraska. The total Electoral College vote is This means that, to become President, a candidate has to win at least electoral votes. The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from each state to delegates committed to vote for a certain candidate in a "winner take all" system, with the exception of Maine and Nebraska which award their Electoral College votes according to Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole. In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for instance, Texas and Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and resources on the so-called "battleground states", those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida 29 votes , Pennsylvania 20 and Ohio This system of election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to win the largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: , , and On the last occasion, the losing candidate Hillary Clinton actually secured 2. If this seems strange at least to non-Americans , the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and so devised a system that gives the ultimate power of electing the President to members of the Electoral College. The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in the Electoral College are chosen and since the s states have chosen their electors by a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in the world of an indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the votes, the constitution provides that the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives and the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. In the first case, the representatives of each state have to agree collectively on the allocation of a single vote. In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in and In , the House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. In , neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President? Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies. The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order ; use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt ; but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to recommend measures to Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress. The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed. Since , there has been an Executive Office of the President EOP which has consistently and considerably expanded in size and power. Besides the formal powers of the President, there are informal means of exercising influence. Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to as at summer some That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and more power to the President than is the case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Two U. Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached Currently the House is considering impeachment against Donald Trump. The President may be removed from office if a majority of the Vice President and the principal officers of the executive departments decide that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Also, needing nine out thirteen votes from the states to pass a law made it almost nearly impossible to get anything done Dahl is an interesting novel questioning the reliability of the American Constitution. Dahl brings up many interesting points and queries in the novel that really strike a chord with anyone who has had similar thoughts before, including me. His main first argument stating that the Constitution is essentially outdated is what caught my attention the most, with his argument that the Constitution needs to be more democratic coming as a close second Constitution was written and signed. Under the Constitution there was the Elastic Clause, which granted the Congress the power to make any laws necessary and proper U. Constitution Article 1 Section 8. Furthermore, in the Constitution the fear of democracy and authority was present, shown through the checks and balances system. The articles of Confederation were diminished in comparison to the Constitution we all know today. Under the Articles, the federal government was weak and limited in power. A major issue was that congress could not collect taxes; they could only merely request funds from the states. The national debt was growing and soldiers needed to be paid for their service. Congress had only one representative for each state. This meant that a populous state would not be represented fairly with respect to its population The ratification of the Constitution in was a difficult nine-month contest fought in the thirteen individual states. The Constitution was ratified, but some reservations surfaced about its content The framers when writing the Bill of Rights amendments particularly focused on how the government will police the people S Constitution was signed on September 17, To date, the constitution is a living document, it never gets old and it is a model for democracies from around the world. It provided America with its own identity and it is one of the causes of why America is deemed, as one of the most powerful nations. America 's first document, the Articles of confederation provided a weak government structure. Where each state operated like an independent country, as the federal government was granted no power The constitution. If it were not for these men our country would not be the same. The constitution has so many parts that are great and very effective and should remain untouched, but there are various tidbits, that are outdated that, could use small changes that would make the constitution as effective as the first day it was in effect. The constitution begins with the preamble The drafters of the Constitution drew from previous documents and experience to make a statement that would govern not only the people, but the individual governments as well. Just as the Constitution guarantees our citizens rights, it also allocates specific rights to the states and federal governments. It also dictates when one may overrule the other The public polling promotes democracy by allowing citizens to give their views concerning issues in government. The opinion polls also keep the government on toes. The main ideas are based on the founding of the American state and the constitution. Constitutionalism is based on the concept of the rule of law and limited authority It was apparent to the framers of the Constitution that the Articles of Confederation lacked central authority over foreign and domestic commerce, threw many conflicts over time after the Revolutionary War. Between the Federalists and the Anti — Federalist they spent the entire summer creating a new government unlike any before In this paper I will be talking about the first Ten Amendments of the Constitution. The Constitutional Amendments are made to protect the people from both the government and the law. The First Amendment of the Constitutional protects the rights of the people when it comes to the freedom of speech, press, and religion. An example of this in a court case would be Sandul v Through this creation, a powerful nation, known as the Haudenosaunee, or known to Europeans as the Iroquois Nation, became an important part in the shaping of the Americas The Constitution is at the center of our everyday lives and is the reason we are able to live with the freedom and security that we do. As the Constitutions author, contents, and effect on the US are evaluated it is very clear why America holds so strongly to the foundation the Constitution set in place. The Constitution is responsible for establishing and distinguishing the powers of the presidency, Congress, and the court system It took effect in February 15, and is amongst the longest state constitutions in the United States. It is the sixth constitution since claiming their independence from Mexico in Texas joined the United States under the Constitution of with provisions. Those provisions included allowing Texas to enter the union and begin the first U. Originalism asserts that those who crafted and ratified our Constitution intended the meaning and effect of their handiwork to be limited to the specific understandings of their time. But this view erroneously attributes to the Framers a narrow-mindedness and shortsightedness that belies their true spirit. Moreover, originalism ignores that those who framed our Constitution were steeped in a common-law tradition that presumed that just as reason, observation, and experience permit us to gain greater insight over time into questions of biology, physics, economics, and human nature, so too would they enable us to learn more over time about the content and meaning of the principles they enshrined in our Constitution. This is not to say, however, that the views of the Framers are irrelevant. To the contrary, their values, concerns, and purposes, as reflected in the text of the Constitution, must inform and guide the process of constitutional interpretation, but in a principled and realistic manner. That is central to any theory of principled constitutionalism. We have now entered a new and even more troubling phase of conservative constitutional jurisprudence. Constitutional interpretation is not a mechanical enterprise. It requires judges to exercise judgment. It calls upon them to consider text, history, precedent, values, changing social, economic, technological, and cultural conditions, and the practical realities of the times. It was the Articles of Confederation that provided the necessary structure to the new nation during and after the American Revolution. The Declaration, however, did set forth the ideas of natural rights and the social contract that would help form the foundation of constitutional government. The era of the Declaration of Independence is sometimes called the "Continental Congress" period. John Adams famously estimated as many as one-third of those resident in the original thirteen colonies were patriots. Scholars such as Gordon Wood describe how Americans were caught up in the Revolutionary fervor and excitement of creating governments, societies, a new nation on the face of the earth by rational choice as Thomas Paine declared in Common Sense. Republican government and personal liberty for "the people" were to overspread the New World continents and to last forever, a gift to posterity. These goals were influenced by Enlightenment philosophy. The adherents to this cause seized on English Whig political philosophy as described by historian Forrest McDonald as justification for most of their changes to received colonial charters and traditions. It was rooted in opposition to monarchy they saw as venal and corrupting to the "permanent interests of the people. Elected terms for legislature were cut to one year, for Virginia's Governor, one year without re-election. Property requirements for suffrage for men were reduced to taxes on their tools in some states. Free blacks in New York could vote if they owned enough property. New Hampshire was thinking of abolishing all voting requirements for men except residency and religion. New Jersey let women vote. In some states, senators were now elected by the same voters as the larger electorate for the House, and even judges were elected to one-year terms. These " radical Whigs " were called the people "out-of-doors. Crowds of men and women massed at the steps of rural Court Houses during market-militia-court days. Shays Rebellion —87 is a famous example.

the Without strength money veterans without cash lost their farms for back taxes. This triggered Shays Rebellion to stop tax collectors and close the courts. Troops quickly 300 the rebellion, but nationalists about George Washington warned, "There are combustibles in every state which a spark might set fire to.

With Maryland's constitution, on January 21,Virginia invited all the states to attend another interstate meeting later that year in Annapolis, Marylandto discuss the essay barriers between the the states.