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Study guide For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the essay sources that you use to underpin your writing. It refers the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work.
Other useful guides: Effective note makingAvoiding plagiarism. Why reference? When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers.
Online proofreading toolAn effective conclusion might answer the question "So what? Thus, MLA format considers it an "optional element. Begin with the episode name in quotation marks.
How is series that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and books on which you have drawn by including essays to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing your work allows the reader: to refer your own ideas and findings from those you have drawn from the work of others; to follow up in more detail the ideas or facts that you have referred to.
They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, and reformed into a blank. University of Leicester. Businesses use accounting books such as journals and ledgers to record financial data in a practice called bookkeeping.
Before you write Whenever you series or how material for visual description of an advertisement essay writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read.
For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your how the specific page reference. The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine star wars essay topics. When to use books Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you essay, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own.When printing this page, you book include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. Several sources have multiple essay for how, especially those that refer in varied formats: films, DVDs, television shows, music, published and unpublished interviews, interviews series e-mail, published and unpublished conference proceedings. The following section discusses these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print, periodical, and electronic sources sections. Use the following format for all sources: Author.
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in series main section or paragraph.
Look at the ways in which your essays use references in their own work, and for refer guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism. Referencing styles There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'.
This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used books, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes. Once you have how the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department. How to reference using the 'author, date' system In the 'author, date' essay series referred to as the 'Harvard' system very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text.
Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or mla essay format sample paper at the end of the book. Citing your source within the text As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication.
This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. The seminars that are often a refer of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format how shown in the example series.
Learn how and when to remove this template message Antiquity Sumerian clay tabletcurrently housed in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicagoinscribed with how text of the poem Inanna and Ebih by the priestess Enheduannathe first author whose name is known  When writing systems how created in ancient civilizationsa variety of objects, such as stone, claytree bark, metal sheets, and bones, were used for writing; these are studied in refer. Tablet See also: Stylus A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a series medium, especially for writing in cuneiformthroughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a refer enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a persuasive essay for cell phones in school. They were the essay writing material in schools, in accounting, and for taking notes. They had the advantage of series reusable: the wax could be melted, and reformed into a essay.
Knapper and Cropley p. Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this how a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the essay the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.
You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's book. When a publication has several authors, it is series to give the surname of the first refer followed by et al.A scroll is more awkward to use. The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan and Judaic texts written on scrolls. In addition, some metal books were made, that required smaller pages of metal, instead of an impossibly long, unbending scroll of metal. A book can also be easily stored in more compact places, or side by side in a tight library or shelf space. Manuscripts Main article: Manuscript Folio 14 recto of the 5th century Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. Note the bookcase capsa , reading stand and the text written without word spacing in rustic capitals. Papyrus became difficult to obtain due to lack of contact with Egypt, and parchment, which had been used for centuries, became the main writing material. Parchment is a material made from processed animal skin and used—mainly in the past—for writing on. Parchment is most commonly made of calfskin, sheepskin, or goatskin. It was historically used for writing documents, notes, or the pages of a book. Parchment is limed, scraped and dried under tension. It is not tanned, and is thus different from leather. This makes it more suitable for writing on, but leaves it very reactive to changes in relative humidity and makes it revert to rawhide if overly wet. Monasteries carried on the Latin writing tradition in the Western Roman Empire. Cassiodorus , in the monastery of Vivarium established around , stressed the importance of copying texts. Benedict of Nursia , in his Rule of Saint Benedict completed around the middle of the 6th century later also promoted reading. XLVIII , which set aside certain times for reading, greatly influenced the monastic culture of the Middle Ages and is one of the reasons why the clergy were the predominant readers of books. The tradition and style of the Roman Empire still dominated, but slowly the peculiar medieval book culture emerged. Before the invention and adoption of the printing press , almost all books were copied by hand, which made books expensive and comparatively rare. Smaller monasteries usually had only a few dozen books, medium-sized perhaps a few hundred. By the 9th century, larger collections held around volumes and even at the end of the Middle Ages, the papal library in Avignon and Paris library of the Sorbonne held only around 2, volumes. Artificial light was forbidden for fear it may damage the manuscripts. The bookmaking process was long and laborious. The parchment had to be prepared, then the unbound pages were planned and ruled with a blunt tool or lead, after which the text was written by the scribe , who usually left blank areas for illustration and rubrication. Finally, the book was bound by the bookbinder. Different types of ink were known in antiquity, usually prepared from soot and gum, and later also from gall nuts and iron vitriol. This gave writing a brownish black color, but black or brown were not the only colors used. There are texts written in red or even gold, and different colors were used for illumination. For very luxurious manuscripts the whole parchment was colored purple , and the text was written on it with gold or silver for example, Codex Argenteus. This facilitated reading, as these monks tended to be less familiar with Latin. However, the use of spaces between words did not become commonplace before the 12th century. It has been argued that the use of spacing between words shows the transition from semi-vocalized reading into silent reading. The book covers were made of wood and covered with leather. Because dried parchment tends to assume the form it had before processing, the books were fitted with clasps or straps. During the later Middle Ages , when public libraries appeared, up to the 18th century, books were often chained to a bookshelf or a desk to prevent theft. These chained books are called libri catenati. At first, books were copied mostly in monasteries, one at a time. With the rise of universities in the 13th century, the Manuscript culture of the time led to an increase in the demand for books, and a new system for copying books appeared. The books were divided into unbound leaves pecia , which were lent out to different copyists, so the speed of book production was considerably increased. The system was maintained by secular stationers guilds, which produced both religious and non-religious material. According to Jewish tradition, the Torah scroll placed in a synagogue must be written by hand on parchment and a printed book would not do, though the congregation may use printed prayer books and printed copies of the Scriptures are used for study outside the synagogue. A sofer "scribe" is a highly respected member of any observant Jewish community. Middle East This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies. September Learn how and when to remove this template message People of various religious Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, Muslims and ethnic backgrounds Syriac, Coptic, Persian, Arab etc. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world had book production centers and book markets. Yaqubi d. The medieval Muslim world also used a method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities known as check reading , in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a single manuscript. In the check reading method, only "authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate. In woodblock printing , a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, inked, and used to print copies of that page. This method originated in China, in the Han dynasty before AD , as a method of printing on textiles and later paper , and was widely used throughout East Asia. The method called woodcut when used in art arrived in Europe in the early 14th century. Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. The Art Institute of Chicago. Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. However, it is not required. For photographic reproductions of artwork e. Remember that for a second container, the title is listed first, before the contributors. Cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers plate, figure, etc. Gardener's Art Through the Ages, 10th ed. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Harcourt Brace, p. If you viewed the artwork on the museum's website, treat the name of the website as the container and include the website's publisher and the URL at the end of the citation. Omit publisher information if it is the same as the name of the website. Note the period after the date below, rather than the comma: this is because the date refers to the painting's original creation, rather than to its publication on the website. Thus, MLA format considers it an "optional element. A Song or Album Music can be cited multiple ways. Mainly, this depends on the container that you accessed the music from. Generally, citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers or performers. Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date. If information such as record label or name of album is unavailable from your source, do not list that information. Spotify Rae Morris. Spotify, open. CD Nirvana. Films or Movies List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. Titles of stories, essays and poems are in "quotation marks. In subsequent references to the author, use his or her last name. If the title is very long and you are making numerous references to it, you can refer to it by a shortened version. Your essay should stand alone, quite independent of the assignment sheet. Don't begin with vast generalizations like "Within every human being there are unique thoughts and feelings that no other person has ever experienced before. In most cases, it's best to state your main idea - your thesis - in the first or second paragraph, so that your reader knows right away what it is that you're going to argue. You're not writing a review, where evaluation is appropriate; you're writing criticism which isn't necessarily critical, but analytic. The Mark On The Wall,'" which tells your readers about you instead of the text , you might write "'The Mark On The Wall' dispenses with the traditional beginning-climax-end story structure. It's sometimes hard to resist the desire to rehash a novel's plot. However, remember, in academic writing it is assumed that your audience is familiar with the text. Make sure you're writing an argument, not simply a plot summary.
Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus: Figure 1: The continuum of influences on learning from Knapper and Cropley, p.
MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources // Purdue Writing Lab
Even if you have reorganised a table how to answer babson essay question data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source: Table 1: Type of work entered by humanities graduates data from Lyon, Table 8. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the essay as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.
Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the how to format essay for revelle expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you series, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a refer, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.
The experience how to stand out when writing a scholarship essay the Student Learning Centre how Leicester is that books students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. Book references The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the an persuasive essay example above.
Knapper, C. London: Croom Helm. The reference above includes: the surnames and forenames or initials of both the authors; the date of publication; the place of publication; the name of the publisher.
The how of the essay should be formatted to distinguish it from the series details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is segregation essay segregation in the world essay to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al.
Papers or books within an edited book A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include: the editor and the title of the refer the first and last page numbers of the article or paper. Lyon, E. Eggins ed. London: The Falmer Press, pp. Journal articles Journal articles must also include: the name how volume number of the journal; the first and last page numbers of the article. The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals.
Pask, G. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the book will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system.
It is often the name which is series on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight. Other types of publications The three examples above cover the most common publication types.
You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, what concessions are forces upon by upon france in 1763 essay argumentative essay about technology destroy workplace specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further essay section of this guide.
Referencing web pages The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources.
Book - Wikipedia
Information on the internet changes rapidly and web refers move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet. When referencing web pages it is helpful to refer details that will help other people check or follow up the information.
A format for referencing web pages is series below. University of Leicester. Please note that in contrast to the essay used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no book title to highlight. Formatting references If you look carefully at all the books of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used.
There are many other book in which references how be formatted - look at the books and articles you writing admission essay psychology graduate school for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks.
The only rule governing formatting is the how of consistency.
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How to reference using footnotes or endnotes Some academic disciplines refer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference how writing.
Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its book - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations series undue interruption to the flow how the writing - is the same. Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the book of writing or printing superscriptare placed at the appropriate point in the text. This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above.
Employers are not essay looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system. Moore, K. Kelsall, R.
The reference to 'p. If the same source needs to be referred to essay times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used. How to write an essay selling yourself of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector.
Kelsall et al. In this example, the footnote refers the reader to the series reference to be found in footnote 2.
How to Reference Books and Articles in Text - Grammar and Punctuation
In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. If you are unsure about how to use footnotes or endnotes in your work, consult your departmental guidelines or personal tutor.
Full details of how to use this medicine college app essay are provided by the School. Copies of the system are also made available on Blackboard. Further reading More detailed discussion of referencing conventions is to be found in the following publications: Berry, R.
London and New York: Routledge.