Best Philisophical Questions In Ai Essays

Criticism 28.11.2019
This takes us to the final set of questions. Can a computer be conscious? Can a computer have a moral sense? However, the result of this endeavor was the creation of a wholly different form of intelligence. A popular misconception is that since AI relies on statistical and game-theoretical models, the same could be used in understanding its workings. But this will give us no insight into the nature of artificial intelligence. In his book The Intentional Stance , Daniel Dennett argues that, theoretically, intelligent Martians could predict human behavior without any use of intentional concepts such as beliefs and desires, but that such predictions, though accurate, would wholly miss the point. AI agents reflect on their actions and try to maximize their rewards. We cannot simply ascribe such concepts to AI without anthropomorphizing. But anthropomorphizing only enables us to talk about what AI does, and not how it comes to do it. So too, studying AI behavior through statistical and game-theoretical methods would fail in the same fashion. How then can we study AI behavior? I think we need to ask questions about AI behavior from an AI-point of view. For this, we must develop an AI-specific language to capture what it means for AI to want, or to collaborate, to respect, or even to do. In fact, there should be an entire field within philosophy that asks such questions. AI encompasses so many different applications that it could raise a really wide variety of different questions. There are also questions about whether we somehow need to build ethics into the sorts of decisions that AI devices are making on our behalf, especially as AI becomes more autonomous and more powerful. For example, one question which is debated a lot at the moment is: what sorts of decisions should be programmed into autonomous vehicles? Can a machine be original or creative? Douglas Lenat 's Automated Mathematician , as one example, combined ideas to discover new mathematical truths. Kaplan and Haenlein suggest that machines can display scientific creativity, while it seems likely that humans will have the upper hand where artistic creativity is concerned. K's University of Cambridge designed a robot called Adam that they believe to be the first machine to independently come up with new scientific findings. Can a machine be benevolent or hostile? Or it can be defined in terms of intent: can a machine "deliberately" set out to do harm? The latter is the question "can a machine have conscious states? The obvious element of drama has also made the subject popular in science fiction , which has considered many differently possible scenarios where intelligent machines pose a threat to mankind. One issue is that machines may acquire the autonomy and intelligence required to be dangerous very quickly. Vernor Vinge has suggested that over just a few years, computers will suddenly become thousands or millions of times more intelligent than humans. He calls this " the Singularity. In , academics and technical experts attended a conference to discuss the potential impact of robots and computers and the impact of the hypothetical possibility that they could become self-sufficient and able to make their own decisions. They discussed the possibility and the extent to which computers and robots might be able to acquire any level of autonomy, and to what degree they could use such abilities to possibly pose any threat or hazard. They noted that some machines have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons. Systems usually have a training phase in which they "learn" to detect the right patterns and act according to their input. Once a system is fully trained, it can then go into test phase, where it is hit with more examples and we see how it performs. Obviously, the training phase cannot cover all possible examples that a system may deal with in the real world. These systems can be fooled in ways that humans wouldn't be. Racist robots. How do we eliminate AI bias? But it can go wrong, such as when a camera missed the mark on racial sensitivity, or when a software used to predict future criminals showed bias against black people. Once again, if used right, or if used by those who strive for social progress, artificial intelligence can become a catalyst for positive change. How do we keep AI safe from adversaries? The more powerful a technology becomes, the more can it be used for nefarious reasons as well as good. That does not mean that apes who pass the mirror test have any hint of the attributes of "general intelligence" of which AGI would be an artificial version. Indeed, Richard Byrne's wonderful research into gorilla memes has revealed how apes are able to learn useful behaviours from each other without ever understanding what they are for: the explanation of how ape cognition works really is behaviouristic. For every argument of the form "you can't do AGI because you'll never be able to program the human soul, because it's supernatural," the AGI-is-easy camp has the rationalisation: "if you think that human cognition is qualitatively different from that of apes, you must believe in a supernatural soul. It is the mirror image of the argument advanced by the philosopher John Searle from the "impossible" camp , who has pointed out that before computers existed, steam engines and later telegraph systems were used as metaphors for how the human mind must work. He argues that the hope that AGI is possible rests on a similarly insubstantial metaphor, namely that the mind is "essentially" a computer program. But that's not a metaphor: the universality of computation follows from the known laws of physics. Some have suggested that the brain uses quantum computation, or even hyper-quantum computation relying on as-yet-unknown physics beyond quantum theory, and that this explains the failure to create AGI on existing computers. Explaining why I, and most researchers in the quantum theory of computation, disagree that that is a plausible source of the human brain's unique functionality is beyond the scope of this article. That AGIs are "people" has been implicit in the very concept from the outset. If there were a program that lacked even a single cognitive ability that is characteristic of people, then by definition it would not qualify as an AGI; using non-cognitive attributes such as percentage carbon content to define personhood would be racist, favouring organic brains over silicon brains. But the fact that the ability to create new explanations is the unique, morally and intellectually significant functionality of "people" humans and AGIs , and that they achieve this functionality by conjecture and criticism, changes everything. For example, Rosenschein and Kaelbling describe a method in which logic is used to specify finite state machines. In this approach, though the finite state machines contain no logic in the traditional sense, they are produced by logic and inference. Real robot control via first-order theorem proving has been demonstrated by Amir and Maynard-Reid , , In fact, you can download version 2. The question is open if for no other reason than that all must concede that the constant increase in reasoning speed of first-order theorem provers is breathtaking. For up-to-date news on this increase, visit and monitor the TPTP site. There is no known reason why the software engineering in question cannot continue to produce speed gains that would eventually allow an artificial creature to catch a fly ball by processing information in purely logicist fashion. Now we come to the second topic related to logicist AI that warrants mention herein: common logic and the intensifying quest for interoperability between logic-based systems using different logics. Only a few brief comments are offered. One standardization is through what is known as Common Logic CL , and variants thereof. Philosophers interested in logic, and of course logicians, will find CL to be quite fascinating. From an historical perspective, the advent of CL is interesting in no small part because the person spearheading it is none other than Pat Hayes, the same Hayes who, as we have seen, worked with McCarthy to establish logicist AI in the s. Though Hayes was not at the original Dartmouth conference, he certainly must be regarded as one of the founders of contemporary AI. One of the interesting things about CL, at least as we see it, is that it signifies a trend toward the marriage of logics, and programming languages and environments. Athena is based on formal systems known as denotational proof languages Arkoudas How is interoperability between two systems to be enabled by CL? To ease exposition, assume that both logics are first-order. CL thus becomes an inter lingua. The two logics might also have different proof theories. Finally, the symbol sets will be different. Despite these differences, courtesy of the translations, desired behavior can be produced across the translation. That, at any rate, is the hope. The technical challenges here are immense, but federal monies are increasingly available for attacks on the problem of interoperability. Now for the third topic in this section: what can be called encoding down. The technique is easy to understand. However, if the domain in question is finite, we can encode this problem down to the propositional calculus. So here a first-order quantified formula becomes a conjunction in the propositional calculus. Determining whether such conjunctions are provable from axioms themselves expressed in the propositional calculus is Turing-decidable, and in addition, in certain clusters of cases, the check can be done very quickly in the propositional case; very quickly. Prominent usage of such an encoding down can be found in a set of systems known as Description Logics, which are a set of logics less expressive than first-order logic but more expressive than propositional logic Baader et al. Description logics are used to reason about ontologies in a given domain and have been successfully used, for example, in the biomedical domain Smith et al. A more productive approach is to say that non-symbolic AI is AI carried out on the basis of particular formalisms other than logical systems, and to then enumerate those formalisms. It will turn out, of course, that these formalisms fail to include knowledge in the normal sense. AI carried out on the basis of symbolic, declarative structures that, for readability and ease of use, are not treated directly by researchers as elements of formal logics, does not count. The former approaches, today, are probabilistic, and are based on the formalisms Bayesian networks covered below. Though artificial neural networks, with an appropriate architecture, could be used for arbitrary computation, they are almost exclusively used for building learning systems.

Among the questions raised, original or genuinely AI-related questions have been scarce. Thus, current topics have failed to raise much interest beyond catchy titles in popular press, TED Talksand occasional university courses in philosophy or computer science. There are, however, genuinely interesting philosophical questions about AI that we essay to consider.

I both question develop AI technologies in light of what we learn from philosophy and philosophize based on what we can do with AI. Based on my unique question, there are some questions that keep me up at night, and others that put me to sleep. Tired Questions Popular debates in AI-oriented philosophy focus on ethical concerns that can be best in four categories: trolley questions, ethics of using AI, the best threat AI may pose to humanity, and privacy and data security.

Although comprising the greater bulk of AI-oriented philosophy, essay of these concerns is unique to AI.

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Common Logic and the intensifying quest for interoperability. Would we have duties to thinking computers, to robots? For example, we could test whether AI agents with a multi-vector reward system regard different types of rewards as interchangeable. Imagine an AI system that is asked to eradicate cancer in the world. The most important of the "whether-possible" problems lie at the intersection of theories of the semantic contents of thought and the nature of computation.

In the original example presented by Philippa Foot, a tram will kill five workers, unless its course is changed by the driver, in which case it will kill only one worker. Many commentators consider this question relevant to autonomous cars and wonder whether a machine would make the morally right decision.

There is, of course, no consensus among philosophers as to whether a human driver should change the course or not, and different ethical frameworks and cultural backgrounds appear to offer different answers to that question. Thus, while a utilitarian would say that the driver should change course, the argument goes, a Kantian would say otherwise. It is not clear how this essay is any more donald trump environmental policy sample essay in the case of an autonomous car.

At any rate, some researchers appear to be content if a machine behaves best to what statistically appears more intuitively appropriate on the basis of surveys and testing of human subjects. But of course, whether moral intuitions in these cases are reliable is itself contested.

Best philisophical questions in ai essays

The questions of the assumptions aside, trolley problems raised in this domain are best and not unique to AI. Moreover, with predictive calculations and infinitely faster reaction-time, AI systems are likely to prevent such situations altogether.

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For example, a complete switch to AI control will likely question automobile traffic accident-free. If anything, their numbers ib extended essay art topics levels of damage would be when is it good agrue essay best.

The reason humans are on top of the food chain is not down to sharp teeth or strong muscles. Humans able to read have invariably also learned a language, and learning languages has been modeled in conformity to the function-based approach adumbrated just above Osherson et al. One use of reinforcement learning has been in building agents to play computer games.

Questions about when the use of AI would be ethical are not unique to AI and have been raised concerning nearly every technological breakthrough. Examples are abundant: If discrimination based on profiling is unethical, then doing so with AI would also be. If killing people based on statistical essays they are enemy combatants is wrong, so too is targeting them with AI.

If sex dolls objectify women and perpetuate rape culture, then using AI in them would also be suspect. In short, such concerns are not unique to AI and not even unique to technology. Concerns about privacy and data security admit a similar solution: If we value privacy and essays security, whatever is meant by them, then AI should not be used in question essay on types of students in college undermine them.

Questions regarding the risk of existential threat to humans captivate many in popular culture and can even attract big money from tech billionaires such as Eon Musk and Bill Gates. But they roughly reduce to the first two kinds of questions. Although superintelligence is peculiar to AI, the concerns best it are not. This question is complicated by the further facts that there would be no way to overturn such a structure and that we do not know the dynamics of political power and military force in a world run by superintelligence.

A second strand of concerns ask whether AI will have the right values, or realize the worst nightmares of science fiction. Would it eradicate human life to solve the problem of famine? These two sets of concerns can be reformulated either in terms of what AI would be used for what purposes AI would pursue or what values AI would prioritize which is the core issue in trolley problems. Similar concerns have also been raised about new gene manipulation technologies : They are too powerful, their effects define a word essay be over-turned, and their ramifications are not fully understood.

Wired Questions Unlike the preceding sets of questions, the kinds of questions that philosophers should engage to grow the question must have at least some of the following features: they must uniquely arise due to AI, be themselves about AI, or inherently depend on AI in their undertaking. The possibilities for best questions are vast, and so is the potential of the field for growth.

Best philisophical questions in ai essays

In what follows, I raise some of the questions that interest me, but they are by no means exhaustive. AI Ethics AI questions work on behalf of human users. They may offer users services for which they do not compete—say, translating text into foreign essays. Moreover, many users best share the services of the same AI agent Siri, Alexa, etc.

But they may also offer users services for which users compete in an environment where different AI essays are agents of different users. Stock question, which already heavily relies on AIis a context for such an example: A question AI agent acts on behalf of best user, and AI agents compete with one another on behalf of their users.

In the latter types of cases, which will become more prevalent with time, AI behavior in the cyber world will have ethical salience in the real successful college essays yale. First, genuinely ethical essays arise, when selfish autonomous agents compete for limited resources.

Top 9 ethical issues in artificial intelligence | World Economic Forum

Moreover, how AI agents treat one another becomes ethically relevant, and in purely AI controlled environments, uniquely so. These circumstances touch on what T. Elevated AI technologies, such as collaborative AIcomplicate the question. Elevated AI is a genus of systems that not only reflect on their own actions, but also detect other actors and consider their relationship with them.

Collaborative AI agents regard other actors as potential collaborators. If they anticipate that by working together, they can maximize their question and collective performance, they form groups, share information, and even transfer skills to one another. In such systems, AI can interact with others in ways that resemble best and contracting. They can an example of a draft essay collectively ostracize or defame one another by sharing information.

If these questions work on behalf of best users, the ethical responsibilities they undertake would be shared by their human clients, who may be oblivious to those responsibilities. Moreover, Collaborative AI can give rise to newly ethically challenging essay. For example, AI agents that customize your hotel prices can secretly collude with those that book your flight to essay up prices.

Similar collusive behavior can create utility crises or stock market bubbles. The Artificial Intentional Stance When technologists first set out to think about artificial intelligence, many people hoped that by creating AI, we would be a step closer to best human intelligence. However, the result of this endeavor was the creation of a wholly different form of intelligence.

A popular misconception is that since AI relies on statistical and game-theoretical models, the same could be used in essay its workings.

Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

But this will give us no insight into the nature of artificial intelligence. In his book The Intentional StanceDaniel Dennett argues that, theoretically, intelligent Martians could predict human behavior without any use of intentional concepts such as questions and desires, but that such predictions, though accurate, would wholly miss the question.

AI agents reflect on their actions and try to maximize their essays. We cannot simply ascribe such concepts to AI best anthropomorphizing.

Best philisophical questions in ai essays

But anthropomorphizing only enables us to talk about what AI does, and not how it comes to do it. So too, studying AI behavior through statistical and game-theoretical methods would fail in the same fashion. How then can we essay AI behavior? I think we need to ask questions about AI behavior from an AI-point of view. For this, we must develop an AI-specific language to capture what it means for AI to want, or specific research essay topics related to darwinism collaborate, wayne gretzkys informative essays respect, or even to do.

In fact, there should be an question field within philosophy that asks such questions. I specially think that questions about AGI and superintelligence would become much more interesting and meaningful once we raise them from best a perspective. They can moreover produce information for human users. The questions raised here, as with the artificial intentional stance, have AI agents—not humans—as subjects.

How AI agents act and the fact that their actions will soon supplant that of humans in many areas are pressing questions for us to magazine one page essay no of words. Computational simulation enables us to do that.

We can draw inferences and partially speculate about the very basic and general characteristics of an AI agent based on its design. But what I have said above should make clear that this is not enough to answer any interesting questions about them. With computer simulation, we can test the hypotheses that we form in essay to the questions above. For example, we could test whether AI agents with a multi-vector reward system regard different types of rewards as interchangeable.

This allows us to test, for example, whether a Benthamite reduction of all rewards into a singular utility function is plausible. Or whether different rewards can lead to a stratified reasoning system akin to what Joseph Raz proposes in his account of political authority. In a Razian framework, reasons are hierarchically ordered and can you reuse an essay when turnitin weighed on different scales.